In Chinese history, there are clear memorable dates starting from 841 BC, but there is no date in previous history. To clarify chronology of Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, famous "Project of Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties" appeared in 1990s. The Chronology Project is a research project to explore chronology of Xia, Shang, and Zhou periods in Chinese history by combining natural sciences, humanities, and social sciences, an interdisciplinary collaborative research project. However, dating project has been questioned from its inception to its results, and has even been referred to as "Culture World Tofu Scrap Project". What happened to Xia, Shang and Zhou projects?First, basic structure of Xia, Shang, and Zhou dating projects relies on astronomical calculations.
The dating project did not use data recorded in ancient book Bamboo Book Chronicles in 471 Xia Dynasty, 496 Shang Dynasty, and 257 years Western Zhou Dynasty .Records to get time of important events. For example, in Guoyu it is written: “Wu Wang won in business in past, era was in quail fire, moon was in tianxi, sun was in xisimujing, Chen was in pen, and star was in Tianyuan ”, which means engineering calculation Among them is “a year in quail fire” - 1046 BC. The "Bamboo Book Chronicles" record that "the first year of King Yi was in Zhengzhou", that is, a solar eclipse occurred in Zhengzhou region. According to astronomical calculations, time is 899 BC.
Leader of Xia, Shang and Zhou Engineering Expert Group: Li Xueqin
However, astronomical calculations seem very scientific, but in fact they are full of loopholes. According to research by relevant scientists, about 50% of astronomical phenomena recorded in ancient China are false. Since ancient Chinese believed in "an interaction between heaven and man", they often attributed a magical celestial phenomenon when a great event took place. For example, phenomenon of "five-star gathering" was associated with several important events of dynastic change: Ji, weak and strong, five stars gathered in well, defeat of Chu and prosperity of Han, gathering of five stars, rise of Anshi, gathering of five stars in Kui and Birth of Song Dynasty. Based on scientific calculations based on unsubstantiated astronomical records, it will surely lead to errors in results.
The State of Xia Dynasty
Secondly, even astronomical calculations will contradict real data. For example, people have discovered some solar eclipse events recorded in Shang Dynasty through oracle bone inscriptions. It is not clear in what year these solar eclipses occurred, but month and day of their occurrence are recorded. After astronomical calculations, people did not find phenomenon of a solar eclipse corresponding to this stage. This shows that there are errors in the textual records and astronomical calculations.2. Problems arose in several events of king's reign, as evidenced by dating project.
The timing of Western Zhou kings as calculated by dating project was accurate to single digits, but many of these data are estimates. As soon as there is a problem with reign of one of kings, whole list of kings will seem meaningless. The first problem that arose was length of reign of King Li of Zhou. The Zhou Benji Historical Record records that King Li of Zhou reigned for 37 years, and Dating Project took this data. However, 37 years of Li Wang mentioned in "Historical Records" of Xia, Shang and Zhou included 14 years of Republic, but Project of Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties excluded 14 years of Republic, effectively adding 14 years. years before Western Zhou Dynasty.
The Marquis of Qing generously bribed King Yi of Zhou, and King Yi ordered Wei to become marquis. Tsingkhuli died at age of twelve, and Zilikhuli. In thirteenth year of Lihou's reign, King Li of Zhou fled to Yu, where republic was ruled by Yan. Twenty-eight years old, Zhou Xuan Wanli. ——“Historical Records of Wei Kangshu Family”
Lee Wang Gui
From "Wei Kang's Uncle's Family", it can be deduced that King Li of Zhou fled 13 years after Marquis Wei Li, and Marquis Wei Qing lived 12 years before Marquis Wei Li, and Marquis Wei Qing was named king by King Yi of Zhou Obviously, King Li of Zhou could not rule for more than 25 years before leaving, so 37 years of King Zhou Li's reign here are counted as 14 years of "Republic", that is, King Li of Zhou ruled for 23 years before leaving. It also proves fallacy of dating project.
Regarding reign of King Mu of Zhou, Historical Record records that "King Mu ascended throne, and Spring and Autumn period is fifty years", meaning that King Mu of Zhou was 50 years old. when he came to power, and did not say how many years he had been in power. And in ancient version of Bamboo Book Chronicles it is written that "From order of Zhou to Mu Wang's centenary, this is not Mu Wang's centenary." That is, 100 years have passed since King Wen of Zhou became king (the year he was appointed) before King Mu of Zhou ascended throne, and there is no record of that time. However, dating project did establish reign of King Mu of Zhou as 55th year of current Bamboo Book Chronicle. The current Bamboo Book Chronicle is a fake book recognized by academia and is absurd to use as evidence. In that era of short life, king was only 50 years old when he ascended throne, and he remained on throne for 55 years. How is this possible?
Chronology of Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties
As for reign of King Zhao of Zhou, dating project is 19 years. The reason is that the current "Chronicle of Bamboo Book" records "the spring of nineteenth year... sky is big, pheasants and rabbits are shaking, Sixth Division died in Han, Wang Zhi." However, this does not stand up to scrutiny. In ancient book "Bamboo Book Chronicles" it is written that "in nineteenth year of King Zhao, sky was big, and pheasants and rabbits were shaking." died this year. Here King Zhao's year 19 was his second southern expedition to Chu, and Zhou Shu Yi Ji describes King Zhao's third southern expedition: “In twenty-fourth year of King Zhao of Zhou... rivers overflowed their banks. , mountains and rivers shook, and five colors of light ran through them. Taiwei Palace" is Ancient Bamboo Book Chronicle" that "In last year of King Zhao of Zhou, five colors of light shone through Ziwei at night. That year, Wang Nanxuan didn't return", you can see King Zhao of Zhou reigning for 24 years.
Inscription "Gui Order": "King Kui defeated Chu, Bo Zaiyang, Kui died in September and dominated Ding Zhou"
The reigns of King Zhao of Zhou, King Mu, and King Li of Zhou in Western Zhou Dynasty King List were incorrectly calculated, not to mention reigns of other kings. For other kings, they can only be shortened according to astronomical calculations of first year of King Wu (1046 BC), first year of King Yi (899 BC), and first year republics (841 BC). ) to complete self-justification, so there are too many mistakes. For example, regarding reign of King Wu of Zhou, Historical Records states that "the world was not peaceful and collapsed in second year of King Wu's conquest of Yin", and Book of Yi Zhou records: "King Wu defeated Yin, and. ..he returned but he was old (second year) December crash", apparently King Wu passed away in second year of his Shang extermination, but dating project is estimated at 4 years.Third, problem of rounding an integer in favor of summer and Shang time.
The Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties recorded in ancient Bamboo Book Chronicle are 471 years, 496 years, and 257 years respectively. In 1522, Xia dynasty was founded in 1992 BC. The time of ancient "Bamboo Book Chronicles" is a system, if you want to believe in it, you must believe in all three, and if you do not believe, then you cannot believe in any of three. However, Xia, Shang, and Zhou's dating projects did not.
Comparison of two chronologies
According to "Former King Wu conquered Shang in age of quail fire", project sets time when King Wu destroyed Shang in 1046 BC. However, time of Shang Dynasty was very troublesome, as no strange astronomical phenomena are recorded in historical records when Shang Tang destroyed Xia, making dating project difficult to continue. But, fortunately, experts calculated age of Zhengzhou Shangcheng from carbon 14. The result of calculation is between 1600 BC. and 1560 BC However, Mr. Zou Heng, a project participant, also said that earliest date for Zhengzhou Shangcheng site could be as early as 17th century BC, which is not true. At that time, some people in academia also assumed that Shang dynasty existed for 576 years, 552 years, 526 years, etc., and these times plus 1046 years, it was about 1600 BC. So project has devised absurd method of taking an integer as beginning of history and directly accepting 1600 B.C. for beginning of the Shang Dynasty.
The Shang Dynasty also used Zhengzhou Shangcheng to measure carbon-14, but Xia Dynasty did not have more accurate astronomical records and no usable ruins. So what to do? At this time, project participants finally remembered ancient book Bamboo Book Chronicles. Didn't it say that Xia Dynasty lasted 471 years, so if 1600 years of Shang Dynasty were pushed forward by 471 years, there would be no 2070 BC? The absurd conclusion appears again, and it is even more absurd than method of calculating round number of Shang Dynasty.