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School education of Xia, Shang and Zhou: main feature is unity of officials and teachers, and this is an instrument of monopoly of noble power

Education is a national priority. Education in a broad sense refers to all education that can increase knowledge and skills of people, and education in a narrow sense refers to school education, which is a purposeful and well-organized teaching method, and is also a leader in social education. The education described in this article is school education. The Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties were period when ancient Chinese education system was formed, and ancient Chinese educational institutions were mainly formed, laying foundation for education of subsequent generations.

1. Xia, Shang and Zhou Schools

In late primitive society, as society moved to state stage, school institutions began to emerge. According to some ancient records, earliest educational institution in China was Chengjun Hexiang. Dong Zhongshu once said that "Chengjun is study of Five Emperors" and Zheng Xuan explained that "Jun is melody. Musicians master tone." In Zhou Li, it is written: "Da Xi Le is in charge of law of success and uniformity to govern education and government of founders of country and children of United Kingdom." person responsible for music education.

School education of Xia, Shang and Zhou: main feature is unity of officials and teachers, and this is an instrument of monopoly of noble power

The main educational institutions of Xia Dynasty were Xiang, Xu and Xiao. Xiang, back in Yu clan period, was originally a place where clan and tribe stored food and supported elderly. "Mengzi" said: "Xiang also grew up." Young people from clan often come here. asking for advice from old people, so Xiang He also turned into an educational institution. The preface may be place used by Xia dynasty to teach archery. The Mencius said, "The preface is also meant for shooting." Later, foreword gradually developed into a place where nobles could discuss politics, donate, and support elderly. . Xiangxu is educational institution of central aristocrats, and school is a local school. The "Historical Records of Rulin's Biography" says: "There are teachings in countryside and summer schools." local nobles.

School education of Xia, Shang and Zhou: main feature is unity of officials and teachers, and this is an instrument of monopoly of noble power

Schools under Shang Dynasty continued to develop on basis of Xia Dynasty, and more importantly, universities emerged. It is recorded in Book of Rites that "the Yin people correctly identified education as a university, and left education as an elementary school, and they liked to study in Guzong." with right training, and elders with training of Zuo.” The universities and elementary schools here are all schools of Wang Ji of Shang Dynasty, among them, university is located in western edge of palace, and elementary school is located in eastern edge. Gu Zong is a school dedicated to study of rituals and music for noble children.

Under Western Zhou Dynasty, school system became perfect. Western Zhou Dynasty schools are generally divided into two categories: Chinese and rural. The Zhou Dynasty called capital or large city "country", and areas surrounding city were called "country" or "field". This is system of country. Therefore, Guoxue is mainly seen as central school and Xiangxue as local school. The setting of Sinology under Western Zhou Dynasty was inherited from Shang Dynasty, but was more advanced. For example, Sinology is also divided into two parts: university and elementary school. Son of Heaven Universities include Chengjun (Southern Teaching), Shangxiang (Northern Teaching), Piyong (Tai Xue), Dong Xu (Dong Xue or Dongjiao), and Gu Zong (Western Teaching or Xiyong). called Pangong. Regarding age of enrollment, there are different rules for noble children of different classes. Generally speaking, children of royal family and princes went to elementary school at about 8 years old, while children of lower nobles did not go to elementary school until they were 13 or 15 years old. The initial academic year is about 7 years. University children of royal family enter at 15 years old, and rest of the children at 20 years old.

School education of Xia, Shang and Zhou: main feature is unity of officials and teachers, and this is an instrument of monopoly of noble power

Western Zhou school system

Xiangxue is a school located in suburbs of capital. There are six townships in suburb of Wangji in Western Zhou Dynasty, and there are several levels under townships, such as state, party, and Lu. These places have corresponding schools, private schools. A private school must be a lower educational institution. As for areas outside suburbs, they are called "Sui", which means "wild". These are communal areas where ordinary people live, as well as main agricultural areas. There are no schools. It also shows that ordinary people in ancient times did not have opportunities for education. Conditions for rural research in other vassal states are also similar to conditions in Wangji area.

Second, education system of unity of officials and teachers

Mencius once said, "He who works hard rules others, and he who works hard rules others." The country is a product of class differentiation: nobles became founders of country and constitute ruling class, while rest are ordinary people and constitute ruled class. To strengthen their rule, nobles set up schools to educate their children and increase their ability to rule country. Ordinary people do not have opportunity to get a school education. Therefore, education under Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties was a public school monopolized by aristocrats, and training in government and integration of officials and teachers became its main characteristics.

School education of Xia, Shang and Zhou: main feature is unity of officials and teachers, and this is an instrument of monopoly of noble power

Faculty of Sinology

The so-called integration of officials and teachers means that heads of various educational institutions and teachers are officials at all levels. Taishi, Taibao and Taifu are not only state ministers, but also teachers of prince. Guoxue's master is Da Xi Le, country's ceremonial official in charge of sacrifices and ceremonies. Xiao Le Zheng, Da Xu, Xiao Xu, Da Xi Cheng, Master Zhu, Master Cheng, Tai Tu, Shao Fu, Shi Shi, Bao Shi and other officials of various levels, as well as teachers work under Da Si Le. sinology. . Xia, Shang, and Zhou weren't teachers. The name "Shi" comes from military officer Shi, who is also in charge of military training equivalent to instructors. Over time, educators began to be called "Shi" < /strong>.

Xiangxue in Western Zhou Dynasty was mainly ruled by Da Situ. He is not only person in charge of local civil affairs, but also person in charge of local educational affairs. Officials such as junior Situ, city teacher, local doctor, governor, and Danzheng, under administration of big Situ, are also heads of educational institutions at all levels.

School education of Xia, Shang and Zhou: main feature is unity of officials and teachers, and this is an instrument of monopoly of noble power

Teaching staff of a rural school

The goal of education in country is to prepare children to become excellent officials and soldiers at all levels. Education and politics are inseparable. In sinology assessment system, this is associated with assignment of official titles. After graduation, Xiao Xu, Da Xu, Xiao Lezheng and others are going to evaluate students. For those who are not qualified, they will be first educated, and if they do not listen to re-education, they will be exiled. For those who excel in evaluation, they must be added to ranks. According to Book of Rites, those who are selected through evaluation are called "Jinshi" and list is given by Zhou Tianzi. Finally, through Sima to see refinement of talents, and then determine their official ranks, and finally, “talk to king, and then decide, decide, and then make an official; appoint an official, and then repair him. ; position, and then pay him."

Rural studies also have corresponding scores. At first, survey was led by a local doctor, and prominent ones were named "Xu Shi" and "Selected Scholars". These outstanding talents were then presented to Situ, and Situ selected most outstanding to enter a university called junshi. Those who did not pass test, Situ asked local elders to enlighten. If they continue to remain same, their educational qualifications will be reduced and they will even be educated by Sui outside suburbs. If you still don't listen to it at end, it is banished and never used again.

Confucius said: "If you study well, you will be an official." Already under Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, fate of educated was connected with a service career and a service career. The difference from later ones is that education during Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties was monopolized by state, and after Spring and Autumn periods and Warring States, by private participation. But in any case, in end, it is necessary to follow path of a “service career”, an open country. This is goal and only way.

Third, content of school education

The ancients summarized educational content of Western Zhou Dynasty as "six arts", i.e. rites, music, archery, imperialism, calligraphy, and mathematics. In fact, education in antiquity was by no means limited to these six basic subjects, for example, ancients also taught knowledge of criminal law, agriculture and divination. For ease of discussion, editor summarizes content of Xia, Shang, and Zhou's education as moral education, basic skills training, religious ritual and music education, and military education.

School education of Xia, Shang and Zhou: main feature is unity of officials and teachers, and this is an instrument of monopoly of noble power

Six art

The first thing to put in first place is moral education. The word "learning" in education comes from "filial piety". Confucius said: “Filial piety is foundation of virtue, and root of learning is life.” In other words, the ancients believed that most basic moral concept was filial piety. In filial piety, offspring will obey their father's wishes, obey their father's orders, and inherit his career. The moral ideas of Zhou people about benevolence, righteousness, fidelity and faith, based on filial piety, also became an important content of moral education. In Xiangxue of Western Zhou Dynasty, Da Situ "taught people six virtues", namely knowledge, benevolence, wisdom, righteousness, fidelity, and harmony; The Western Zhou Dynasty promoted "governing country by virtue", which shows that moral education has an important place in education of Western Zhou Dynasty.

Basic skills and general knowledge education, which is content of education that ordinary students should receive at stage of primary education. Calligraphy (calligraphy) and mathematics (arithmetic) in Six Arts refer to this kind of education. Xu Shen said, "Zhou Li entered elementary school at age of eight, and Bao family taught country's sons six books at first." Judging by inscriptions on bones of oracle, education in calligraphy and mathematics already existed in Shang Dynasty, not to mention Western Zhou Dynasty. Hanshu reports that during reign of King Zhou Xuan there were already books on calligraphy for children. It is recorded in "Zhou Li" that arithmetic education in Western Zhou Dynasty is basically "Nine Numbers", that is, fantian (land area calculation), corn (proportional exchange problem), difference (proportional distribution problem), Shaoguang (square root ). in volume calculation) ), commercial value (engineering calculation), average loss (corvee transportation and distribution), equation, insufficient gain (hypothetical method) and side effects (Pythagorean theorem). This knowledge of "nine numbers" laid foundation for later "Nine Chapters on Arithmetic". In addition to calligraphy and arithmetic, knowledge of agriculture and animal husbandry, land and minerals are most basic content of education.

School education of Xia, Shang and Zhou: main feature is unity of officials and teachers, and this is an instrument of monopoly of noble power

The inscription "Sanshi Pang" in bronze inscriptions of Western Zhou Dynasty

The ancients believed in ghosts and gods and relied on their superstitions to formulate a system of religious etiquette to deify ruling position. Therefore, religious education in Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties was not separated from ritual and musical education. During Xia and Shang dynasties, people respected heaven and ghosts, so religious atmosphere of ritual and music education was very majestic. In addition to teaching poetry, playing musical instruments and dancing, divination, sacrifices, etc. were also necessary. During Western Zhou Dynasty, concept of "respect for heaven and man" was promoted, and system of rituals and music was reformed so that religious content in rituals and music was reduced and norms of etiquette were improved. The ancients believed that these etiquette norms not only support hierarchy of nobles, but also have a moral effect on children. The Book of Rites says: “Where three kings teach sons, they should use etiquette and music. Music is meant to develop on inside, etiquette is meant to develop on outside. In addition, ceremony and music are intertwined in middle and released from outside, so they are also very successful, respectful and gentle.” Etiquette training in Western Zhou Dynasty mainly included auspicious rituals, cruel rituals, military rituals, guest rituals, and laudatory rituals, collectively referred to as "five rituals".

School education of Xia, Shang and Zhou: main feature is unity of officials and teachers, and this is an instrument of monopoly of noble power

Xia, Shang and Zhou were era of aristocratic rule. The nobles did not have to engage in industrial activities, but they had to engage in military activities. At that time, nobles were called "nationals" because they mostly lived in cities. They wanted to use military to rule and control "savages" with a large population. Therefore, one of main duties of Chinese people is to "defend country by war," so military training is a necessary education. Archery (archery) and driving (driving) in Six Arts are military training. In Western Zhou Dynasty, there were five standards of archery training, namely "Bai Shi" (shooting through target), Shen Lian (three arrows in a row), Yan Zhu (shooting at target, high neck and low arrowhead). ), Xiangchi (competition of humility, if emperor and his ministers are on same field, ministers need to step back on one foot), Jing Yi (release four arrows to form a well). There are also five driving skills called "Five Imperials", namely: Ming and Luan (stability test), Zhushuiqu (curve driving), Guojunbiao (accurate passage through bottlenecks), and Wujiaoyuqu (handling test). left (drives animals well to left so that monarch can shoot and hunt). But in fact, military education goes far beyond archery and defense.


According to this educational content, civilians also do not have right to receive education. For example, books in ancient times were mainly bamboo and wooden planks, and writing tools were knives and pens. These materials are very heavy and expensive, and only nobles can make them, and earliest books are only in national archives, so situation is that "only officials have books, but people do not have books." Both ceremonial and musical education, and military education required products from precious bronze that civilians could not make, which led to phenomenon that "only officials have weapons, but people do not." Therefore, main reason for peculiarities and limitations of education of Xia, Shang and Zhou was relatively low productivity. During Spring and Autumn period and Warring States Period, with development of productive forces, this trend of official and academic monopoly was broken, leading to cultural flourishing of "hundred schools of thought."

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