Human civilization began about 5,000 years ago, first appearing in Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. About 4000 years ago it appeared in India, China, Greece, Iran, Turkey and other places. There are many archaeological discoveries in history of mankind, some before rise of civilization (prehistory) and some after rise of civilization. The editor will help you understand earliest times of some important inventions in human history.1. First people: Australopithecus.
Currently, oldest human fossil found in world is an Australopithecus discovered in South Africa in 1924. Since then, same fossil has been found in many places in South and East Africa 1.3 million years ago. At beginning of discovery, due to factors such as racial discrimination, European scientists did not recognize this discovery. However, a large number of studies have proven that Australopithecus left forest, lived in pastures, can walk upright and use natural tools.2. The earliest Paleolithic sites:
The earliest Paleolithic site in world is Olduvai Cultural Site, which appeared in Olduvai Canyon 1.75 million years ago and was discovered in 1930s. Typical artifacts of this culture are gravel cutters, which make up 51% of all stone tools. There are also discs, polyhedral stone tools, prototype hand axes, stone balls, large scrapers, small scrapers, and carvers, among others. Culture is created by capable people.3, world's earliest musical instrument
The earliest musical instrument in world is a 35,000-year-old bone flute discovered in Holle Fell Cave in Germany in 2008. The bone flute is intricately crafted from hollow bones of neck wings, about 22 cm long and 2.2 cm in diameter, with V-shaped breathing holes and multiple sound holes. There are finely engraved marks next to sound holes, which seem to be used to help flute maker align where sound holes should be cut. The earliest musical instrument found in China is a bone flute found in the Jiahu excavations 8,000 years ago.
Jiahu bone flute4, earliest painting in world
The earliest paintings in world were found in Chauvet cave in France about 32,000 years ago. Painted rhinoceros, lions and bears, although worn out over years, can still give people a strong visual shock. In addition, earlier rock paintings include Lascaux cave paintings in France, Serra da Capivara cave paintings in Brazil (25,000 years ago), Bhimbekat cave paintings in India (12,000 years ago), and Laas Gaal cave paintings in Africa, cave petroglyphs (10,000 years ago), cave of Hands of Pinturas River in Argentina (9,000 years ago), Altamira cave (14,000 years ago), Magura cave (8,000 years ago), etc. The oldest petroglyphs in China are petroglyphs of Jiangjunyan in Jiangsu, which are 4,000 years old.
Chauvet Cave5, earliest bow and arrow in world
The earliest bow and arrow in world was discovered in Zhiyu, Shanxi Province, China, 28,000 years ago. After invention of bow and arrow, people can not only hunt land animals from a relatively long distance, but also shoot birds in air up and fish swimming in water down, which greatly enhances ability to fight nature. Engels said in The Origin of Family, Private Property and State: "Bows and arrows are decisive weapon for age of savagery, just as iron is for age of barbarism, and firearms are for age of civilization." /p>6, earliest pottery in world
The earliest pottery in world was discovered about 20,000 years ago at Wannian Xianrendong site in Jiangxi Province, China. In 2012, it was included in top ten archaeological discoveries in world. More than 90 pieces of pottery were found at site, as well as a spliced pottery pot with a straight wall and a round bottom. According to observation of pottery, pottery is made using two kinds of molding technique: gluing clay sheets and removing clay, and all molds of pottery have a round bottom. The invention of ceramics plays an important role in process of human civilization, and development of new technologies can be an important factor in promotion of ceramics from works of art to practical utensils.
Fairy Cave7, earliest agricultural site in world.
The world's earliest agricultural ruins have been discovered near Aswan, Egypt. In total, 6 monuments were discovered, ranging in age from 18,000 to 17,000 years ago. Millstones, stone vessels and coexisting wheat were found in ruins. charred rye husk grains After analysis and examination with an electron microscope, latter was recognized as a cultivated species. This discovery disproved previous theory that agriculture originated in Western Asia. The earliest agricultural site in China is a specimen of cultivated rice phytosilica in Xianzhen Cave, Wannian County, Jiangxi Province, dated to 10,000 years ago.8 The World's Earliest Bronze Ware
The earliest bronze ware in world are natural copper items found at Kaying Tepe site in Turkey about 10,000 years ago. Subsequently, copper products appeared in Mesopotamia and gradually spread to all parts of world. 6000 years ago, bronze smelting technology first appeared in Turkey and began to spread throughout world. The earliest bronzes in China were found at Majiayao site, a bronze knife dated to 5,000 years ago.9, world's earliest text
The earliest writing in world was found in Mesopotamia about 5,200 years ago and was called cuneiform. Around 3000 BC cuneiform writing system was mature and glyphs were simplified and abstracted. Around 2500 BC this system of writing in Sumer has reached stage of full development. There are about 500 cuneiform characters, many of which have multiple meanings, making cuneiform much more difficult to understand than later alphabetic writing system. The earliest written characters in China are oracle bone inscriptions 3,300 years ago, about 4,500 individual characters have been engraved on oracle bones, and about 2,000 characters have been interpreted and read so far.
Cinema10 is oldest wrought ironware in world.
The oldest iron-smelting tool discovered to date in world is a copper-handled dagger with an iron blade found in northern Turkey. It was made by Hittite kingdom 4500 years ago. After Hittite invented iron smelting technology, he monopolized it for 200 years. It has since spread to nearby areas. The earliest iron artifacts in China are two iron rods found in tombs of Mogu Siwa culture in Lingtang County, Gansu Province, which are 3,000 years old.