As beginning of ancient Chinese poetry, earliest collection of poems, Book of Songs, collected many poems before Spring and Autumn period, but little is known that Book of Songs is not only poetry. but also valuable historical documents. For example, in Book of Songs. Wen Wang: Wen Wang is upstairs, Yu Zhao is in sky. Although Zhou is an old state, its order has been restored. If Zhou does not appear, emperor's order is cancelled. not from time to time." "Although Zhou is an old state, order has been restored in it." It has historical value and can explain some of questions in oracle bone inscriptions and even origin of Zhou people.
After Hou Ji, first ancestor of Zhou people, Buyu (zhú) moved to Zhongdi mountain forest, that is, “ran away on his own between Zhongdi”, until ancient father of Danfu moved to Qishan and Zhouyuan, and thus established “Zhou Guo” was called at this time by "the people of Zhou". Therefore, for Zhou family with surname Ji, who "fled to Rongdi" in eleventh generation, "Zhou is an old state" is certainly not worthy of name, and "Zhou is an old state" also seems to have no basis. In that case, why does Songbook still say that "Although Zhou is an old state, his life has been restored", what is meaning behind it?State of Zhou in oracle bone inscriptions: whose state is Zhou?
During reign of King Wuyi of Shang Dynasty (?—1113 BC), Danfu's ancient father moved from Bindi to Zhouyuan, so surname was changed from "bing" (bing) to "Zhou", thereby installing Zhou Guo. However, inscriptions on bones of oracle show that already during reign of Shang Wang Wuding (1250 BC - 1192 BC), state of Zhou also existed in Zhouyuan region.
According to oracle bone inscriptions, "Chonghouhu", one of three famous generals of Wu Ding's time, was a Chongguo monarch who lived in Xi'an and led his army many times to conquer Zhouguo. Later, Chonghou Hu was branded and slandered Ji Chang to King of Zhou in historical records, resulting in Ji Chang being imprisoned.
The Wu Dingshi inscriptions read: "Zhen: Order several sons of dog Hou Jianzhou (carve out Zhou Fanguo), and let king do everything", "Ding Weibu, Hou......Fudun Zhou (Dun carved Zhou Fanguo )), August”, “Divination of Jiao, Binzhen: Ling Zhou asks for more cattle (children)”, and so on.
Among them, relations between Shang and Zhou during Wu Ding's time were initially tense. Therefore, either Wu Ding destroyed Zhou state and closed another Zhou state so that Shang dynasty could order it, or Zhou state was defeated and surrendered, so Shang dynasty "made Zhou beg for more cows" and so on. on the.
The question is, which state did Zhou conquer Wu Ding, and did he leave his mark on documents handed over? In fact, grotesque book Shan Hai Jing, which reflects ancient style, provides answer.State of Zhou in Shan Hai Jing: it was built by Hoxha's brother!
“Zhou” is just a toponym. Particularly in "Qishan Zhouyuan" area, ethnic groups living here may call themselves "Zhou", so "Kingdom of Zhou" naturally existed for a long time. According to Shan Hai Jing, long before ancient father and father, "Western Zhou Dynasty" already existed in Zhouyuan area.
“Shan Hai Jing Da Huang Xi Jing”: “There is a country in Western Zhou Dynasty, surname is Ji and Shi Gu. There are people who are engaged in agriculture, and their name is Shu Jun. Emperor Jun gave birth to Hou Ji, and Ji descended from a hundred valleys. Ji's younger brother is called Taixi, he gave birth to Shujun. Shujun sowed one hundred grains on behalf of his father and Ji and began to cultivate. There is Shuangshan."
In other words, descendants of Hoji and Buyu left their hometowns and "ran between Rong and Di", while Hoji's younger brother Taishi and his descendants Shujun and others developed their hometown of Zhuoyuan and inherited descendants of agricultural business Ji established "Western Zhou Dynasty" here. The hieroglyph "Zhou" in inscriptions on bones of oracle is similar to a plot of agricultural land, which confirms that agriculture in Western Zhou dynasty was developed at that time.
When Houji's descendants wandered, Taixi's descendants who developed farming business were very prosperous and established "Western Kingdom of Zhou" with relatively strong power, so they challenged Shang Dynasty. Faced with problem of "Little State of Zhou", Wu Ding started wars many times to teach State of Zhou, and there were dozens of oracle bone inscriptions reflecting that Shang Dynasty had a deep impression of "State of Zhou".
As for fate of "Western Zhou Dynasty", it is highly likely that it will be destroyed, because connection between later state of Zhou and Shang dynasty is very close, and connection between Shang and Zhou is unlikely to change so quickly. Therefore, after destruction of "Nation of Western Zhou Dynasty", Shang ruler had to canonize another Zhou state, closely related to Shang dynasty, but did not last long.Location of Buyu people: archaeological finds
The reason why Buyu left Zhuoyuan may be due to internal conflicts, i.e. discord with cousins and uncles, or failure in struggle for power, so he had to leave his hometown and "run between Rong and Di." The question is, where did Buyu's people end up?
According to historical records, Buyui left Taidi (now Xianyang Wugong, Shaanxi Province, just tens of kilometers from Mount Qishan) and arrived in Beibin (now Qingcheng County, Qingyang, Gansu). Later Gong Liu migrated to Bindi (now Binh County, Xunyi County), and finally Gugong Danfu migrated to Qishan Zhuoyuan. In other words, after eleven generations of wandering abroad, Buyu Branch rudely returned to their hometown.
More importantly, above map shows that no-roam place is close to Taydee's hometown, which was in line with traffic conditions at time. In particular, Bindi, where Gong Liu (Buyu's grandson) migrated, recently made major archaeological discoveries. In county of Xunyi, "site of Xitou" of Shang and Zhou dynasties was discovered. historical record that land of Binh before ancient father and father moved to Qi must surely be in this area.
Therefore, although this clan of people "ran between Rong and Di", judging by distance from Bindi to "Western Zhou Dynasty Kingdom" (today's highway is about 120 kilometers), there must be some connection between two sides, but later generations should keep memory of Taixi and Shujun's relatives, that is, Gong Liu, Gu Gongdanfu, etc., knew that descendants of Taixi and Shujun founded "Western Zhou Dynasty".
For eleven generations of Zhou family who "fled between Rong and Di", statement that "Zhou is an old state" is undoubtedly not true, but for establishment of "Western Kingdom of Zhou" in Zhouyuan, Wuding repeatedly. As far as Zhou family is concerned, saying that "Zhou is an old state" is undoubtedly true.
After ancient father and father moved to Qi, it was tantamount to continuing "old state" of "Western Zhou Dynasty".
However, this may be because Zhou Dynasty is too far away from "Nation of Western Zhou Dynasty", or people of Zhou Dynasty have prejudices against Taixi branch, so they are unwilling to talk about "Nation of Western Zhou Dynasty" (Shan records only Hai Ching). He simply uses term "old state" vaguely to emphasize legitimacy of the regime and Zhou's long history.
Reference materials: "Shan Hai Jing", "Historical Records", "Zuo Zhuan", etc.