In my ancient country, Xia Dynasty was often considered first feudal dynasty. But in fact, historians agree that orthodox feudal dynasty is Qin dynasty of the current historical record.
And they divided Xia Dynasty into feudal dynasties based on fact that the renunciation system changed from Xia Dynasty to hereditary system, which is so-called family world.
But in fact, this statement, whether foreign or domestic historians, raises doubts about existence of Xia dynasty.
In order to investigate existence of a dynasty, In addition to self-reported records, there must be real objects, i.e. historical relics from archaeological sites.
As for Xia Dynasty, recorded cultural relics have not been excavated, so historians have a big disagreement as to whether this dynasty existed.
It was only after the appearance of Erlitou site that it was proven that Xia Dynasty could not have been founded by Da Yu. It can also be explained that dynasty that was called "Xia" by later generations cannot be called by that name.End of Dayu
Whether in stories passed down from generation to generation or historical records,it shows that beginning of Xia Dynasty is closely associated with Daiyu.
In this story, Daiyu's outstanding ability in managing water resources caused chief of Shuna tribe to see superior ability of this tribe member, and, according to practice of tribe, he gave Dai next Zen chief.
Whether Daiyu controlled water, whether he visited his family and refused to enter, or ingenuity he showed in managing water, people of tribe were extremely convinced of him.
During Dai's leadership, he unified other tribes and established Xia dynasty as we know it. This is a well-deserved and outstanding achievement. But Daiyu made an extraordinary move: transferred position of leader to his own son Qi.
This behavior also violated longstanding rules of abdication system, which is origin of hereditary system. Also from here, hereditary system continued in ancient feudal my country until Qing Dynasty, and it completely ceased during period of Republic of China.
According to historical records, Jie was last king of Xia Dynasty. Fourteen generations passed from founding of Xia dynasty to its collapse.
All of these historical materials are inferences drawn from records of later generations.
Due to development of science and technology today, archaeological technology has also been fully developed, and some of discoveries of historians have also led to controversy, believing that Daiyu did not found Xia dynasty, or Say it is not called Xia dynasty.Discovery of Chen Xiusheng
When Sima Qian compiled history book "Historical Records", more than 2000 years had passed since Xia Dynasty, so there were very few records about Xia Dynasty in "Historical Records" book. Mythical color hook.
This has caused many scholars to lose confidence in study of Xia Dynasty, but there is a historian Chen Xiusheng who is extremely fanatical about Xia Dynasty.
He is a firm believer in existentialism of Xia Dynasty. In many historical and literary works, he firmly believes that this age-old dynasty must exist and it must leave traces on this earth. China.
He traveled land of China for many years, from youth to middle age to old age, trying to find Xia Dynasty.
It was through this perseverance that Huang Tian eventually paid off: in 1950s and 1960s, at age of 71, after years of travel, he finally found clues to Xia Dynasty in one place.
In a small village in Henan province, a key site has been discovered and excavated. Because it is located in village of Erlitou, it is called Erlitou Monument.Erlitou Ruins
The discovery of this site was also quite dramatic.
Due to special status of Luoyang in China, many archaeological discoveries have been made in this place, many historical traces have been collected. It can be seen that Luoyang is a well-deserved ancient cultural capital.
YiAccording to historical records, Xia Dynasty probably established their capital here.
When Chen Xiusheng came to Erlitou Village with his assistants, local farmers became very interested in this group of cultured people. After learning their purpose, farmers also told them about the strange things that used to happen.
Shards of broken and even whole dishes were found in field, ground was not cleared and water often leaks, and on wall of a freshly dug pond there is a whole wall of broken pottery.
These keywords connected in series immediately made Chen Xiusheng wary, and he immediately thought that there was a possibility that ruins he was looking for were hidden underground in Erlitou Village.
Revealing this information made Chen Xiusheng not think too much. He took his assistants and archaeologists to conduct a detailed investigation of Erlitou Village, and finally came to conclusion that ruins were hidden here. below village.
Thanks to ongoing archaeological work, this legendary ancient city has finally reappeared. The cultural relics found in ruins also disproved some of existing findings in field of archeology.
In ruins of Erlitou, there are not only fully planned houses or palaces, but even smooth roads.
The housing complex is huge and standardized, and width and length of road ruins have an extremely strict layout. All these finds prove that these are not ruins of a sacrificial center, but location of royal capital of country.
More than 400 tombs have been discovered in vicinity of Erlitou. At that time, only powerful nobles could bury in such large and luxurious tombs.
In addition, a large number of pottery and bronze items, and even bronze musical instruments were found here.It can be seen that ritual and musical culture was also very developed at that time.
According to discovery of detection technology, this site must have existed from about 2000 to 1500 BC. It is also very consistent with time periods of Xia Dynasty and Shang Dynasty recorded in ancient books.
But precisely because there is no record of word "Xia" either at Erlitou site, or on ceramics and bronze, and, judging by temporary records, second half of Xia dynasty was also found, and there is no period of Find Xia dynasty established by Yu Great.
This is because there is no direct evidence that dynasty at that time was called Xia dynasty, so until now we have not been able to establish whether dynasty founded by Dayu was called Xia dynasty, and whether Dayu was really founder of Xia dynasty is also unclear .Nature cannot be installed.Summary
Although there are doubts in historian circles as to whether Xia Dynasty was founded by Daiyu, everyone agreed that Xia Dynasty must exist.
The Erlitou excavations are also a key piece of evidence for this conclusion, and that is why we must insist on cultural self-confidence and resolutely oppose Western scholars' intrusion into historical nihilism. The reason is that we have our own culture. The confidence brought by background.
As for Xia Dynasty, with development of science and technology, we believe that one day traces of it will be found on Chinese soil.
In historical relics, give us an answer about Xia Dynasty, perhaps with deepening of excavations at Erlitou site, we can learn more about its history and find Xia Dynasty founded by Dai towards.