Chinese history says that there are three human ancestors: Huangdi, Yandi and Chiyu. Emperor Yang belonged to humanistic ancestor of cultivators in north, and Chi Yu was humanistic ancestor of Dongyi. What about Yellow Emperor? Some people think that Huangdi and Yandi belong to same branch and belong to cultivators in north, but many scholars believe that Huangdi belongs to humanistic ancestor of nomadic peoples in the north.
Legends say that Yellow Emperor defeated Yan Emperor at Battle of Bankyuan. Since then, Yellow Emperor Clan and Yan Emperor Clan have merged into Huaxia Clan. This legend reflects phenomenon of many years of mixed marriages between surname Jiang and surname Ji in ancient times. Emperor Yang belonged to a tribe named Jiang and belonged to ancient Qiang group, originated in Gansu and Qinghai region, and entered agricultural civilization in Weihe region. "Guoyu" writes: "Emperor Yan is made of ginger water," and "Shui Jing Zhu" believes that Jiangshui is located in south of Jiang City at headwaters of Weihe River, which belongs to today's Baoji City. During Western Zhou Dynasty, "Rong Jiang" still existed here.
In my opinion, Yellow Emperor does not belong to an agricultural clan, but to a nomadic clan. The Yellow Emperor had surname Ji, and "The Yellow Emperor was created by Ji Shui". According to appearance of Yellow Emperor and Xuanyuan in Shan Hai Jing, Yellow Emperor's family mainly operates in Gangqing area and Loess Plateau. The Yellow Emperor and Beidi belong to same ethnic group. According to "Shanhaijing Dahuangxijing": "There is a country of Beidi, grandson of Yellow Emperor is called Shijun, and Shijun was born in Beidi." Autumn period, some tribes in Beidi still had surname Ji." Spring and Autumn Annals" says: "Xianyu Zhongshan, Bai Di, surname Ji." The Mausoleum of Yellow Emperor appeared during Han Dynasty in northern Shaanxi, meaning ancients believed that Yellow Emperor also operated in this area. Sima Qian recorded that "The Yellow Emperor collapsed and was buried at Qiaoshan".
Stone Man at Shimao
Stone man of Kimuercike culture in Xinjiang
If Laoguantai culture and Dadiwang culture belong to Yandi clan, then Majiao culture and Qijia culture are more inclined towards a nomadic culture, which may have been created by Huangdi clan. The earliest bronzes in China have been found in nomadic ruins in northwestern region, and most representative of these is a bronze knife in ruins of Majiayao. Bronze items first appeared in Western Asia and were brought to China from northwest through nomadic peoples of Eurasian continent. Bronze items were first decoration and then weapons. According to Chinese historical records, earliest copper smelters were Huangdi family. The Fengchang Shu Historical Records says: "The Yellow Emperor collected first mountain copper and cast a tripod under Jingshan Mountain."
Bronze knife at Majiayao site
Bronze mirror of Qijia culture
People often overlook Qi's family culture, but it is very important and may be origin of Chinese civilization. The Qijia culture is widespread from headwaters of Weishui River in Shaanxi Province in east to Huangshui River in Qinghai in west and to Ningxia and Inner Mongolia in north, with more than 300 sites. In addition to Qijiaping site, more famous are Yongjing Dahezhuang Ruins, Qin Weijia Ruins, Huangniangniangtai in Liangzhou, Liuwan Ruins in Ledu, Qinghai, Shenmu Shimaoliang Ruins, etc. The most famous of them is Simao site in northern Shaanxi.
Simao is largest prehistoric city in China. After archaeological excavations and DNA analysis, it was found that this place belongs to a nomadic culture. For example, at Simao site, more than 20 stone figurines were found, which are usually found on pastoral cultural sites. Altai region in Xinjiang, China is a concentrated area of stone statue distribution, eastern end of metallurgical network; At Simao site, 20 chords made of bone were discovered, which are earliest stringed instrument in my country, Manchu and other nomadic peoples. Scientists conducted a DNA analysis on bones of cattle found at Simao site, which once again proved that cattle were brought to China from Gansu-Qinghai region.
A harmonica found in ruins of Shimao
Totem poles in ruins of Simao, such as "Hua"
Actually, early Yangshao culture in Weihe River Basin undermined people's imagination. Based on discovery of DNA from human bones at Yangshao site, it was established that population here is predominantly N-type, which is one of main types of ancient Eurasian pasture peoples. In addition, main population of Longshan culture and Xiajiadian culture are also N-type. The ratio of N-type genes in Huns and Hungarians is also very high. No wonder Sima Qian said that Xiongnu were descendants of Xia dynasty, and not nonsense. The main gene of modern Han is type O, and both H and O are genes of yellow race. Why was O-type able to dominate later? The main reason is sharp increase in number of agricultural peoples.
The origin of daote pattern in Shang Dynasty