In history of Europe, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, etc. used force to conquer vast areas of Europe, but after careful study, these empires never succeeded in uniting Europe.
In 1646, facing strong pressure from Ottoman Empire, King George of Bohemia proposed that European Christian countries unite to resist expansion of Ottoman Empire.
In 1775, after creation of United States of America, European Marquis Lafayette, Thaddeus Gauss and others proposed to follow example of United States and create United States of Europe.
After World War II, faced with destructive power of two world wars, many people began to support some form of European unification. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill once proposed creation of a "United States of Europe". ten years of debate. Eventually, European Community was created in 1960s and European Union in 1990s.
However, whether it be Roman Empire, or "United States of Europe" proposal, or current European Union, one can see fact that idea of a united Europe was never realized. So, already more than 2000 years ago, China was able to achieve a great unification, why is Europe still unable to unite? There are many hidden reasons behind this, author lists following three, some of which are worthy of deep thought by Chinese.First, language is imperfect.
An indispensable condition for unification is existence of a single language, but European languages have natural defects and are insufficient to support unification.
Chinese characters are a combination of "sound, form and meaning". Although there are dialects such as Cantonese, Wu and Min that are difficult to understand, Chinese from all over world can communicate in Chinese accurately and smoothly. characters, so it is impossible to form a language barrier. It can be said that long-term unification of China is due to unique Chinese language.
Unlike China, at beginning of emergence of European writing, it was a kind of phonogram writing, which expressed meaning by sound or pronunciation. If pronunciation is different, then meaning will be different. But problem is that pronunciation easily evolves into local dialects, which after a long time will not understand each other. Today, languages of European countries are different, but basically they are born from Latin, which can be called, to some extent, dialects of Latin.
That is, scope of phonetic signs is usually not too large, and it is easy to form an "independent linguistic realm" and create an obstacle to communication and integration, which will inevitably prevent unification of languages. Europe.
In fact, just think about what would have happened to ancient China if Chinese characters were phonetic and you can see impact alphabetic characters had on European unification.
In short, combination of "sound, form and meaning" in Chinese makes it more expressive and communicative and naturally applicable to a wide range of regions and even world. Therefore, looking at all languages in world, Chinese is objective world language most suitable for globalization.Secondly, lack of cultural identity.
If you want to unite, you must have a basic cultural identity, otherwise, even if you are forced to unite, you will undoubtedly run risk of disintegration.
The cultural identity of Chinese people is associated with period of Zhou Dynasty. Obviously, this is an act of nepotism, but princes of Ji surname throughout country will objectively bring cultural identity, and powerful military power of princes of Ji surname also assimilates surrounding princes with different surnames, so by Warring States period, China already had great unity, cultural basis and expectations, as well as deeper appreciation in terms of food, clothing, housing, transportation, and values.
More importantly, China emphasizes cultural identity. If you "enter China" and follow Chinese etiquette, you will be recognized. In contrast, "outside of China" will not be recognized if you no longer use Chinese etiquette. , so some Western scholars say that "China is a civilization disguised as a country."
Unlike China, there are many European countries that often place more emphasis on blood, have their own national cultural practices, and do not have same cultural identity. In other words, they care more about national identity than cultural identity. populism, etc. For example, Britain has a small territory, but there are Anglo-Saxons, Celts, Normans, etc. Different ethnic groups occupy a piece of land, and there are many conflicts among themselves, same is true when looking at Europe.
If it is said that in early days, talented and courageous political leaders could forcibly knead through military conquest and achieve cultural identity, then in later stages it will undoubtedly become more difficult. For example, during Warring States period, if there was no Qin Shi Huang, it is believed that later he is, more difficult it will be to achieve a centralized unification.
Of course, Europe has cultural identity of Christianity, but Christianity is a religious culture and a theocracy culture that has a natural conflict with secular realm. Monarchs of different countries may believe in Christ and agree with canonization of Pope, but it is undoubtedly impossible for them to give up secular power and return to a single theocracy.Third, Europe supports opposition
Chinese philosophy strives for unity of opposites and recognizes opposition of yin and yang, but also believes that "everything carries yin and embraces yang, and spirit is harmonious." In accordance with this philosophical thinking, China refers to other countries or alien races, admits existence of antagonistic relations with each other, but also tolerates and accepts them, "unites" with them in world. By becoming part of China, it can, in principle, coexist peacefully with neighboring countries such as North Korea and Japan.
But unlike China, Europe prefers confrontation. Montenegro, a Slovak sinologist in Europe, sharply pointed out that West prefers to promote "struggle of opposites" and eliminates other side with attitude of opponents, but ignores harmony and unity, that is, there is "opposition" but no "unity".
For foreign races, Europe destroys them as opponents, so Indians are slaughtered with a calm soul; for other European countries, although they do not intend to completely eliminate each other, when they emphasize confrontation, various conflicts inevitably break out. So, European history There have been constant wars in world, especially two world wars, provoked.
More importantly, Europeans pay special attention to interests. "There are no eternal friends between countries, there are only eternal interests." This phrase is widely used and is taken seriously by many. In fact, this phrase is not entirely true, but it reveals essence of European emphasis on profit. Under pressure of profit, but also prefer confrontation and confrontation, countries continue to intrigue and war, so how can they be united?
Looking at European countries, with exception of Russia, where there are more ethnic groups, ethnic composition of other countries is often relatively simple. Why? Obviously, this has something to do with lack of an inclusive culture in West. Since Qin Shi Huang unified China, China has always been a multinational country, but many ethnic groups have retained their characteristics and have not been integrated into mainstream culture, but there has been no collapse. Why? There must be many reasons for this, but China's inclusive and open culture has undoubtedly contributed greatly. Compared to Western civilization, which prefers opposing cultures that eliminate alien races, Chinese civilization is undoubtedly more attuned to various civilizations in world. Therefore, China's rise is gospel of "underdeveloped countries" rather than blind flattering< /p>
It can be seen that in absence of cultural identity, lack of a single language, preference for opposing cultures, and emphasis on demands of interests, even if a great statesman like "Qin Shi Huang" appears in Europe, it is believed that he can only achieve temporary association, and it is difficult to continue it for a long time.
The most important thing is that Europe has not been able to unite in history, and in future it will be even more difficult, because “big devil” still lives in America, which will never allow Europe to be truly united and allow it to dramatically increase its strength to challenge his status. The Brexit incident of past few years may be result of this strategy.