Vietnam, known in ancient times as "Jiaozhi" or "Annan", was part of Central Dynasty of Qin Dynasty. However, starting with Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, Vietnam became independent and became a nation-state in Indochina peninsula. Since then, Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties fought wars with Vietnam, but were ultimately unable to bring Vietnam back into territory. The war between Qing dynasty and Vietnam was listed by Qianlong as one of "Ten Great Martial Arts", and Vietnam recorded it as "the last great decisive battle in history of fighting against aggression of northern feudal group. ". Who won and lost this war, and what impact did it have on future generations?
Since Vietnam became independent, there have been Ding Dynasty, Qian Le Dynasty, Li Dynasty, Chen Dynasty, Hou Le Dynasty, Mo Dynasty and other dynasties. In 1664, Li Weixi, King of Later Li Dynasty, surrendered to Qing Dynasty and was canonized as King Annan by Kangxi Emperor. Thus, Qing Dynasty and Vietnam established a relationship of suzerain and vassal. In early 17th century, northern part of Vietnam was controlled by Trinh family and southern part by Juan family. This was known in history as "Trng-Nuan Dispute" and then Emperor Le Dynasty became a puppet.
In 1771, Xishan uprising broke out in Vietnam, during which Nguyen Van Hui successively destroyed Nguyen, Zheng and founded Xishan dynasty. Li Weiqi, last emperor of Houli Dynasty, fled to Guangxi and asked for help from Qing army. At that time, former Li Dynasty was exhausted, and Xishan Dynasty was a new dynasty. The Qing Dynasty must establish suzerain-vassal relations with Xishan Dynasty to be right choice. However, Qianlong Emperor believed that Li family was most obedient to submit to heaven, so he decided to help Li family rebuild country.
In 1788, Sun Shiyi, governor of Guangdong and Guangxi, led 10,000 soldiers from Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, and Guizhou from Nanguan and marched into Vietnam. In early days, Qing army advanced very smoothly, and general guarding Lang Son surrendered. Ruang Wenyang retreated to north of Beijing (now Bakning Province). Sun Shii posted a garrison of 2,000 soldiers at Lang Son, while main force of 8,000 continued to advance towards Hanoi. Subsequently, Wu Dajing, admiral of Yunnan, also led 8,000 men to city of Xuanhua in Vietnam.
In October of same year, survivors of Hou Li gathered troops to respond to Qing army and claimed that Qing army had brought hundreds of thousands of soldiers, causing Xishan's army to collapse one by one. Only Ruan Wen in Sanjiang Region resisted stubbornly. On November 13, Shang Weisheng and Qingcheng led over 1,000 Guangxi soldiers to Shouchang River (now Beijiang). The Xishan army did not dare to fight and cut pontoon bridge. At that time, there was a thick fog over river, and Xishan's army was full of warriors who did not distinguish enemy from enemy and began to kill each other. The Qing army took opportunity to cross river and defeated Xishan army. It was Battle of Shouchang River.
When Qing army arrived in Hanoi, Wu Wenchu, General of Hanoi Guard, sent envoys to sue for peace in order to delay troops. He was rejected by Sun Shii. Then Wu Wenchu surrendered Hanoi and retreated to Sandy Mountain, taking advantage of danger to defense.
On November 15, Qing army arrived in city of Qiujiang. The Qiujiang River in city has a wide surface, and its southern bank is higher than northern one. The Xishan army guarded highlands on southern bank and fired cannons at Qing army. The Qing army could not cross river, so Sun Shiyi feigned a frontal attack and ordered Qing army to cut and transport bamboo and timber to build a pontoon bridge as a sign of crossing, and sent 2,000 more men to detour south. bank. On 17th, Qing army outflanked Xishan's army and launched a surprise attack, causing Xishan's army to fall into chaos. The main body of Qing army took opportunity to cross river, and Xishan army was defeated.
On 19th, Qing army approached Fulyang (Red River), which is gateway to Hanoi. The Xishan army cut down all trees along Red River to prevent Qing army from crossing river. After Sun Shiyi arrived at Red River, he found that there was no boat to cross, so he attacked camp of Xishan army at night, captured a group of ships, and burned ships of Xishan army, causing Xishan army to fall into chaos. . Later, Qing army attacked Xishan barracks at night. The Xishan army did not know size of Qing army, so they fled one after another.
In November 1788, all Qing troops crossed Red River and entered Hanoi. Subsequently, Qing army escorted Li Weiqi to Hanoi, and Li Weiqi was again canonized as King Annan. Sun Shii asked to keep advancing south and keep attacking Xishan army. However, Qianlong believed that Annan was torn apart by war and economy was severely damaged. The Qing army traveled long distances and had difficulty getting supplies.
However, Sun Shii was so delighted that he disobeyed order and continued to keep army in Hanoi. After retreat of Xishan army to south, after resting and re-forming, it also had strength to counterattack. On November 15, Ruang Hui became king and led 100,000 men to launch a counterattack against Qing army.
December 20, Ruan Hui entered Sandy Mountain and joined Wu Wenchu and Pan Wenlin. Subsequently, Xishan army moved towards Hanoi by five routes. On New Year's Eve, Qing army was celebrating a festival in Hanoi and was drunk, but Xishan army quietly approached city of Hanoi, and Qing army did not even realize it. Soon, Hehui camp and Yuhui base of Qing army were surrounded by Xishan army. The remnants of Qing army fled to Motang, fell into swamp, and were eventually destroyed.
Thus, Xishan army successfully captured city of Hanoi, and Li Weiqi fled with his family to Zhennan Pass. When Sun Shii and other generals learned that Xishan's army had entered Hanoi, they also panicked and forced army to flee. The Xishan army pursued Fuliangjiang and Sun Shii wanted to fight again, but his subordinates blocked him. Therefore, Qing army cut off pontoon bridge and fled through Hebei. During river crossing, command of Qing army was chaotic and many people drowned in the river.
In this battle, Qing army first won and then lost. It was worst battle among Qianlong's Ten Great Martial Arts. Subsequently, Qianlong Emperor appointed Fukang'an as commander-in-chief in an attempt to start a second Annan War. After Fukang'an entered Annan, Ruan Hui received him as soon as he saw him and immediately bowed to apologize and begged for surrender, expressing his surrender to Qing Dynasty. In 1789, Qianlong Emperor believed that Li family had lost people's hearts after losing country many times, so he agreed to Nguyen Hue's surrender.
Fu Kang'an laid down four conditions, namely (1) to send all Qing soldiers scattered in Annan to China; ) went to Beijing in 1790 to celebrate birthday of Emperor Qianlong (aged 80), and apologized: (4) In Annan, he built an ancestral hall for Xu Shiheng and other soldiers who died in battle, and worshiped twice a year in spring and autumn .
Ruan Hui really wanted to wait for approval of Qing Dynasty, so he fully accepted terms of Qing Dynasty and complied with them immediately. In 1789, Qianlong Emperor canonized Nguyen Hui as King Annan, and two countries formally established a relationship of suzerain and vassal. It was only at end of Sino-French War that Vietnam broke with this suzerain-vassal system. However, more than 370 people from Li family who defected to Qing dynasty were included by Qing dynasty in Eight Banners of Han army.
Nguyen dynasty officials
It is interesting that on 80th anniversary of Qianlong, Vietnamese missions arrived in Beijing to pay their respects in Manchurian costumes, while Korean missions were dressed in traditional costumes for that time. When North Koreans saw that Vietnamese were wearing Manchurian costumes, they laughed at Vietnamese mission.
In 1802, Nguyen Phuc Anh overthrew Tay Son dynasty and founded Nguyen dynasty. In 1803, he sent envoys to Beijing to pay his respects, asking Jiaqing Emperor to canonize him as King of Nanyue. The Jiaqing Emperor believed that South Vietnam included Chinese regions of Guangdong and Guangxi, so it was absolutely impossible to give this name to Annan, so he reversed two words and gave him title "King of Vietnam". Since then, Vietnam has become official name of country.