The human mind has never conceived a plan more lofty, beautiful or useful than lasting peace among peoples of Europe. There has never been a writer more deserving of respectful attention than one who suggests ways to bring this plan to life.
Any person who does not love fantasy of a generous spirit that overcomes all obstacles, if there is a spark of kindness in him, but should feel his heart glow at prospect of such justice, And love this dry, disgusting rationality.
Because this rational indifference to human well-being is always main obstacle to realization of plan?
I don't think many readers will arm with doubt as best defense for obeying faith. This melancholy mood makes them think hard about wisdom.
I believe that every generous soul shares emotional thrill of talking about a topic so intimately connected to humanity. I imagine all men entering into Love Bonds.
I call before thought brotherhood of tenderness and peace, everyone lives in unbreakable harmony, everyone follows same principles, everyone finds themselves in happiness of universal Happiness.
And as I immerse myself in this touching scene, thought of imaginary happiness will momentarily deceive me into real happiness. In these first lines, I could not help but be filled with emotions of my heart. Now let's try to be calm.
I am determined not to assert anything that I cannot prove, and I have right to require reader to deny everything that he cannot refute. Not so much argument. I am afraid of those who do not bow to my testimony and categorically refuse to bring any arguments against them.
No man can think for a long time about method of any government to a state of perfection, without realizing many difficulties and obstacles, which in their essence are difficulties and obstacles than his neighbors, not so many compared to nature.
As a result, care that should have been given to his inner well-being had to be devoted to his outer security. We needed to think more about how to protect it from other than how to make it as good as possible.
If social order really is, as it pretends to be, work of mind and not of passions, can we gradually see, as we shape it, what it does for us Happiness does too much or too little?
In relation to our neighbors, each of us is in a civil position, but in relation to rest of world, we have taken every precaution to prevent private wars, and as a result have provoked national wars a thousand times more terrible? And by joining a certain group of people, do we really declare ourselves enemy of entire race?
If there is any means by which these dangerous contradictions can be reconciled, it can only be a form of federal government that should unite nations in a kind of bond and bring them under rule of law.
Even otherwise, this form of government seems more important than others.
Because he combines power of small and great, because he is powerful enough to instill fear in his neighbors, because he upholds rule of law, because that is only power of aliens and aliens.
This form of government is a kind of novelty, principles of which are fully understood only by modern man. But this was not a mystery of ancients.The
Greeks had their amphiticons, Etruscans had their Lycumene, Latins >with their palisades, Gauls were their confederation of cities and Asiatic confederation graced deadly struggle of Greeks.
None of these federations, however, was founded with half wisdom of Germanic institutions, Helvedian League, or nation as a whole.
If these bodies are still so few and so far from perfection we think possible, it is because realization of good is always less than ideal. For politically and morally, more we expand our knowledge, more we are forced to recognize extent of our suffering.
In addition to these formal confederations, other, less obvious, but no less true confederations can be built, consisting of common interests, agreement of habits and customs, acceptance of common principles, established ties. between politically divided countries are silently intensifying.
Thus, great European powers form a single whole, united by unity of religion, moral norms and international law. Through letters, commercial and finally through balance, inevitable result of all these connections.
No matter how consciously one tries to maintain this connection, it cannot be destroyed as easily as many imagine. This European concert did not always exist. The specific reason that caused it is still working hard to keep it alive.
The fact is that before conquest of Romans, peoples of this continent were mired in barbarism, completely unfamiliar to each other, having nothing in common except a courageous character.
The character, corrupted by customs of slavery, in their eyes is not much different from what constitutes a savage.
Thus, Greeks were vain and contradictory, almost dividing human race into two separate races, so to speak. One, of course, was created by themselves to rule, and other was created by rest of world just to be slaves.
According to this principle, Gauls or Spaniards are no more important to Greeks than Kaffirs strong>or < strong>Red Indians are more like Greeks. The barbarians were as deeply separated from one another as Greeks were from one another.
But when these people, born rulers, were defeated by their slaves, Romans, when half of known universe came under same yoke, a common bond of law and government was established, and all found themselves members of same empire.
This bond is further strengthened by adopted principle, be it wisest or most stupid, to transfer all rights of conqueror to conquered.
The most important thing is famous decree of Claudius, according to which all subjects of Rome are included in list of its citizens. Thus, all members of empire were united into one political body.
They were also united by laws and civil institutions that strengthened political ties by a fair and unambiguous recognition of ruler and subject, mutual rights and obligations of one citizen in relation to another.The
Code of Theodosius and later legislation of Justinian formed a new bond of justice and reason, which showed clear signs of weakness of sovereign power at moment when it replaced it.
More than anything else, this will keep empire from falling apart and even keep it in control of barbarians who ravage it. Religion provides a third, stronger connection.
It cannot be denied that even now Europe is more indebted to Christianity than to any other influence on Union, however imperfect, that has survived among its members.
This is so true that a people that rejects Christianity remains a stranger among other peoples. Christianity was so despised in infancy that in time it became its refuge.The
Roman Empire pursued it relentlessly for centuries, drawing from it a strength it could no longer find on its own. The missionaries did more for this than any victory.
He sent bishops to correct mistakes of his generals, and when his soldiers failed, he won with help of priests.
So Franks, Goths, Burgundians, Langobards, strong>Avars strong> and others finally recognized power of empire which they owned, at least superficially, law of gospel and law of princes that had been preached to them.
Even in its death throes, this majestic institution commanded such respect that, in end, its victors were honored to accept its title.
The generals who humiliated Empire became ministers and officials of Empire. The king proudly welcomed them and even gathered nobles, counties and consulates.
And like those he could easily devour, these formidable conquerors paid homage to a throne they could abandon at any moment.
Thus, clergy and empire bind nations that share principles and beliefs in groups with no real interests, rights, or interdependence. effects still persisted.
The Roman Empire never ceased to unite peoples that were once part of it. Because Rome was still asserting its power in a different form after fall of Empire, Europe, home of both temporal and spiritual power, still maintained closer relations of friendship than anywhere else.
Countries on other continents are too scattered to interact with each other. They have no other points of contact that Europe enjoys. There are other, more specific reasons for this difference.
European population is more even, and land distribution is more even. It is easier to move from one part of it to another. The interests of his princes were linked by ties of blood, trade, art and colonies.
Countless rivers meander from one country to another, making it easy to communicate. A kinship love of change drives its inhabitants to constant travel, often taking them to foreign lands.
The invention of printing and general love of writing gave them a basis for common knowledge and common intellectual pursuits. Finally, its quantity and smallness.
The country, desire for luxury and variety of climate that Europe offers to satisfy them, are necessary to each other.
All these reasons combined make Europe more than just an imaginary collection of peoples like Asia and Africa.
There is nothing in common except for name, but a real community, with religion and moral principles, with its own customs and even laws, which no participating country can refuse without shaking whole frame.
Watch an endless strife, robber, usurper, riot, war strong>, murder, they have brought devastation to this ancient home of philosophy, this glorious mecca of art and science.
Consider infinite humanity of our aphorisms and endless cruelty of our actions.
So benevolent is our religion, so ferocious is our intolerance. Our politics are so soft in our textbooks and so harsh in our deeds. Our rulers are so generous, our people are so unhappy, our government is so soft, our wars are so fierce.
Then tell me how to reconcile these seeming contradictions. Tell me, is this so-called brotherhood of European peoples nothing but bitter sarcasm of their mutual hatred? But, Really, what else can you expect?
Every community without laws and rulers, every alliance created and maintained by chance, is doomed to strife and strife at first change.
The historical union of peoples of Europe has involved their rights and interests in a thousand complications. They touch each other at so many points that neither of them can move without touching other. Their differences are even more fatal. Since they are more closely intertwined, their frequent squabbles are almost as ferocious as internecine wars.
"On Confederation and Federalism in Theory of European Integration of Early Modern Times"
"Permanent and comments"