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What great powers did Qing dynasty establish? Several companies ranked among top 500 in world

4. Fuzhou Shipping Bureau: Cradle of Chinese Navy

The Mawei Shipyard, also known as Mawei Shipping Bureau Shipyard, was first organized by Zuo Zongtang and finally completed by Shen Baozhen. It was largest shipyard of Qing Dynasty. Mawei Naval Shipyard produced more than 40 ships during Qing Dynasty and cultivated a large number of talents. During Republic of China period, Mawei Shipyard fell into disrepair, but still produced China's earliest seaplane. The Mawei Shipping Bureau School has developed into Republic of China Naval Academy, which has trained a large number of talents and has been "cradle of Chinese navy". Today, Mawei shipyard is on the cusp of a renaissance.

5. Jinling Machinery Manufacturing Bureau: Forerunner of Changan Automobile

In 1865, Li Hongzhang founded Jinling Production Bureau based on Zeng Guofan's Anqing Nei Ordnance Institute, which could produce muzzle-loading guns, projectiles, carriages and bullets of various calibers and became second largest weapons manufacturer. a Qing Dynasty factory second only to Jiangnan General Manufacturing Administration. In 1888, Jinling Production Bureau successfully imitated Maxim single-barreled machine gun, which was first generation of Chinese-made heavy machine guns. During Republic of China period, Jinling Production Bureau was renamed Jinling Arsenal, which provided 60% of ammunition for Chinese people during anti-Japanese war. After founding of New China, Jinling Arms Factory split into Changang Automobile Factory and Nanjing Chenguang Machinery Factory, etc. The former mainly produces automobiles, while latter deals with design and manufacture of missiles.

6. Tianjin Machinery Bureau: The largest arsenal in north

In 1867, Wanyan Chonghou founded "Main Administration of Weapons and Machinery" in Tianjin, which was second only to Jiangnan Production Bureau in scale. In 1870, Li Hongzhang took over bureau and renamed it Tianjin Machinery Bureau, which became largest munitions project in north. In 1888, Machine Building Bureau built China's first submarine. After Sino-Japanese War of Sino-Japanese War, Tianjin Machinery Bureau also built a steel mill and a smokeless drug factory. In 1896, it was renamed Beiyang Machinery Bureau. In 1900, Machinery Bureau was destroyed by allied forces of eight powers. After that, Yuan Shikai opened another factory in Dezhou called Dezhou Arsenal. In 1924, Dezhou Arsenal was merged with the Shandong Arsenal.

7. Shandong Machinery Bureau: Forerunner of Shandong Chemical Industry.

The Shandong Machinery Bureau was founded by Ding Baozhen in 1875 and is second largest military factory in north. After fall of Qing Dynasty, it was renamed Shandong (Jinan) Arsenal. In 1924, Dezhou Arsenal was merged with Shandong Arsenal. After start of anti-Japanese war, Shandong arsenal moved west. After founding of New China, factory was transformed into Shandong Chemical Factory, now known as Northern Modern Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., which is specialized in aerospace, electronic communications, automotive, construction etc. Professional production base of non-metallic materials.

8. Hubei Arms Factory: The most advanced arsenal of modern times

In 1890, Zhang Zhidong opened vast Hubei Ordnance Factory in Hanyang, which at time was most advanced armory in China, with major equipment purchased from Germany. By 1909, factory had produced a total of 130,000 guns and was most important arsenal of late Qing Dynasty. In 1904, Hubei Ordnance Factory was renamed Hubei Arsenal. After revolution of 1911, Hubei Ordnance Factory became one of war factories that major warlords fought for. During anti-Japanese war, Hubei arsenal moved west to Chongqing to continue weapons production. The "Made in Hanyang" guns produced by Hubei Arsenal are very famous in modern China and were used until period of resistance to US aggression and aid to Korea.

9. Lanzhou Machine Building Bureau: The largest arsenal in northwest China today.

In 1866, Zuo Zongtang was transferred to northwest to suppress civil strife. In 1869, he established Xi'an Engineering Bureau in Xi'an, which produced a large number of modern weapons and made great contributions to suppression of Shaanxi-Gansu rebellion. In 1872, Zuo Zongtang moved it to Lanzhou and changed its name to Lanzhou Manufacturing Bureau. Under meticulous leadership of Zuo Zongtang, Lanzhou Production Bureau has become largest arsenal in northwest China. After restoration of Xinjiang, Lanzhou Manufacturing Bureau closed and did not reopen until 1907. During period of Republic of China, Lanzhou Machinery Bureau became center of competition between forces in Northwest and suffered major setbacks. After founding of New China, Lanzhou Machinery Bureau was reorganized into Lanzhou General Machinery Factory, which is now General Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd. and mainly manufactures machinery and equipment for oil extraction.

10. Great Qing Bank: Forerunner of Bank of China

In 1908, Qing Dynasty established first central bank, called Family Bank, and changed its name to Great Qing Bank following year. After fall of Qing Dynasty, Great Qing Bank was renamed Bank of China and continued to function as a central bank. During national government period, Bank of China became an international exchange bank and opened branches in London, New York, Singapore and other places. In 1931, Bank of China established China Insurance Company. During great economic crisis, Bank of China promoted legal currency reform. After founding of New China, Bank of China became bank that integrated management of national foreign exchange and carried out international trade settlements. Bank of China is now a Fortune 500.

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