It can be said that 5000-year history began with change of Xia and Shang dynasties, and gears never stopped moving forward. The rise and fall of civilizations and survival of nations, due to the nature of feudal society, "ordered by Heaven", rulers can often become history makers themselves.
History cannot be discussed indiscriminately, but it is in hearts of people. Every stroke of history is complete and cannot be rewritten. Who ruled wisely is praised eternal beneficent monarch;Who created false prosperity and superficial prosperity that harmed people and went to ruin?
"There are no innocent snowflakes in an avalanche."
People have to plan, but God has to make things happen. In other words, it is up to you whether you succeed or not, and whether you die or not is up to God. It is said that Qing Dynasty died in Qianlong, and he was a foolish emperor. In fact, this is an argument in itself, requiring dialectical discussion. It is like Zhang San eating seven eggs and being stuffed to death, so he concluded that seventh egg was culprit.
All things in this world will alternately rise and fall and eventually disappear. To some extent, this is inevitable. However, result of death is result of combined action of many complex factors, such as internal and external factors.
A certain factor or a certain factor will not play a decisive role in outcome, but can only be said to delay or hasten process of extinction. From this point of view, Qianlong Emperor was a wasteful emperor, which undoubtedly hastened decline of Qing Dynasty.Kill chicken and take egg
When Qianlong said "prodigal son", he meant more than just lost money. Of course, real money that was lost was also a part that cannot be ignored. In fact, Qianlong was not a spendthrift during his reign. Looking closely at position of private wealthy state treasury during Yongzheng period, Qianlong was indeed not a spendthrift.
The fatal point of Qianlong lies in excessive pursuit of human wealth. This point is clearly different from what it was during Yongzheng period, when level of people seeking was very low. It can be said that every household has a small surplus of money, and everything will be reversed, and monthly profit will be lost.
Qianlong sought people's wealth to extreme, it can be said that he reached peak. Before Qianlong, it was very popular to pay tribute and buy officials. During a certain period of time, a large amount of financial resources were concentrated, but this provided a hotbed for cultivating excessive wealth. The amount can be said to have been thousands of times and tens of thousands of times.
“Family business” is not just a little money in treasury. Qianlong lost basis of ancestors and Qing Dynasty. Disaster relief, river repairs, White Lotus Sect, and huge military spending, it goes without saying that every item is a huge expense that shakes national treasury.
However, looking back at actual situation, treasury was relatively full during Qianlong's reign. What was actually lost was not gold, but society's physique and potential for its future development. We have reason to conclude that it is inability to concentrate power of people, caused by overexploitation, and foundation is unstable.Cultural dominance
Culture is main factor of productivity. We are familiar with phrase "Qingfeng is illiterate" but know little about Qianlong's cultural rule. A typical case of Qianlong is case of Zhang Tingyu, killing chickens to scare monkeys, and path of ups and downs, I don't know if it should be described as brilliant.
For Qianlong, cultural rule was a means of control and domestication, as well as his trump card.
Zhang Tingyu is too similar to Qianlong, too perceptive, which leads to disagreements. And, holding too much power in his hands, when Qianlong violently dealt with his cronies, it can be said that he was so tall that he shot best bird.
Zhang Tingyu's official career was full of ups and downs."You have received kindness of two dynasties, and you have obeyed will of emperor, and you will have right to enjoy Taimiao in future. Is there any reason to worship Yuan officials and return to battlefield?” The following year, houses of veterans of three dynasties are copied.
Qianlong has been in power longest and has repeatedly emphasized that he rules country with benevolence and righteousness, but, in end, he is not accompanied by a loyal courtier. Such a vicious method, and rest are mediocre talents tamed by it, and no one dares to speak... Isn't that sad?
Secondly, during Qianlong's reign, he destroyed books and historical records for no reason that did not contribute to rule of Qing Dynasty. It is true that compilation of Siku Quanshu was an indelible cultural achievement of Qianlong, but it destroyed more and more valuable cultural property.
It seems that Qianlong's consistent style is: you say that he has no achievements, but he really created a great foundation in history, regardless of military, economic and cultural aspects, but this is always accompanied by an unbearable historical price. These costs are fatal.Be proud and smug, take lead and enjoy
If cultural shackles were direct cause of Qianlong's decline in Qing Dynasty, then perhaps his greed for pleasure in his later years was overly complacent with false prosperity he created in early days, and he enjoyed it to fullest. and was extravagant and lustful. Don't forget, he was an emperor.
Because of style of reigning emperor, He Shen, a notorious overly corrupt official, was being fed. Qianlong reused Heshen. It must be said that Heshen was a master of financial management and income generation. He discussed crimes related to silver and mining, which to a large extent met economic needs of Qianlong.
In addition, Qianlong hosted a massive banquet, and ministers desperately paid tribute, which led to layers of exploitation and provoked greed for money in political circles of Qing Dynasty.
If government and public are like that, let alone ordinary people! People are fighting for their lives and have no money left. Compared to White Lotus Rebellion, White Lotus Sect's rebellion is an inevitable trend in history that directly led to decline of Qing Dynasty from its heyday.
Qianlong's whole life has been immersed in a dream, "Heaven is prospering", ascending throne is pinnacle, standing on shoulders of ancestors, laying a vast territory, in itself a good card To win, Qianlong was in critical time of his reign.
The era in which Qianlong lived was 18th century, a time when great changes took place throughout world, which can be described as an era of upheavals. American independence, French bourgeois reform, British industrial development...
All of Europe is making great strides in reform and progress, but looking back at Qing Dynasty, people sigh. The opportunity is gone and times will not be repeated.
The country was closed to outside world, and entire Qing Dynasty was imprisoned in hands of one person. This is a fetter, a cage that fettered entire Qing Dynasty and almost stopped pulse of development of entire dynasty, society almost stagnated, and if it did not advance, then it retreated.
Qianlong ruled for 60 years. During these long 60 years, Qing Dynasty missed trend of world development. The world trend pushed forward possibility of progress, but Qing Dynasty struggled to retreat. Yelang's arrogance gradually turned Qing Dynasty into slaves to so-called advanced Western society.
Looking at development of entire Qing Dynasty, we have reason to judge Qianlong as an emperor who "outweighed his merit". It caused a lot of bad consequences. Directly, it missed development of industry and became a pariah of times, indirectly, it started with a centuries-old history of Qianlong's humiliation, and Qianlong was even more to blame.
When you look at rise and fall of a dynasty, it's all about snap of a finger. Arbitrary royalty has never been driving force behind social progress. The high degree of centralization under feudal system must be eliminated. Although historical merits and demerits cannot be attributed to one person, he is worthy of vigilance for world.