The article "Population Structure of Y Chromosome SNP Haplogroups in United States and Implications of Forensic Science to Create Y Chromosome STR Databases" presents five major groups of Y chromosomes, including White Americans, Blacks, Indians, Hispanics and Asians. Introduction to chromosomes.
As an ethnic melting pot, United States includes a lineage of people from all over world. In this study, a total of 2517 people were selected from 38 groups (sub-cities), which is still very impressive in terms of total number.
See table below for sampling details:
2. General Analysis
A total of 61 Y-chromosome SNPs were analyzed from an analysis of 2517 individuals. The frequency of different SNPs ranged from 0.04% to 37.8%, lowest being D and N-P43, each of which was found only 1/2517 (0.04%). The highest rate is R1b-M269, which is 37.8% This type has a high incidence in Western and Southwestern European countries such as Ireland, Scotland, UK, France, Netherlands and Spain. The second largest type is E-P1, which is main type in West Africa, accounting for 16.6% in United States and 62.0% in blacks, indicating that main area of origin of blacks in United States is West Africa. , which is consistent with historical records.
According to PCA distribution of Y-patriarchy among five populations, whites are relatively close to Hispanics, blacks are relatively close to these two due to widespread integration of white patriarchies, and Indians and Asians are far from these groups.
Third, genetic types of main races
White Expert Advisor (European-American):
Occupying vast majority of US population above paternal Y, R1b-M269 accounts for 58.3% (Western Europe), R1a-M17 accounts for 7.2% (Eastern Europe and India), and I-P30 accounts for 11 .7% (Northern Europe). Other things worth clarifying is that ratio of E-M78 is 2.9% (this type belongs to people around Mediterranean, not black Africans, Napoleon and Hitler are both of this type ), and E-P1 ratio is 0.9% (this type is descended from West African Negroes), Q-M3 ratio is 0.7% (paternal Indian type, which corresponds to every 142 modern white Americans, one distant ancestor in paternal line is actually Native American and Native American paternal line continues in a different recessive way) and there are various O-M175s totaling 0.5% which is East Asian patriarchy influence on whites and N-Tat only accounts for 0.1% , indicating that there are very few whites from Russia and eastern northern Europe.
Black AA (African American):
In terms of black patriarchy, it mainly consists of two parts, one of which is distant ancestors from black Africa, including E-P1 (62.0%), A-M91 (1.4%), B- M60 (2.3%). ), E-SRY (5.1%), another part comes from unilateral integration of whites, mainly R1b-M269 (17.3%), various I-P30 (5.3%), some historical records show that whites male slave owners violated black slave women and left offspring among blacks.
Indian NA (Native American or Native American)
Data on Indian tribes vary greatly. Q-P36 (31.2%), Q-M3 (26.9%) and C2-P39 (9.0%) are native types of North America, of which C2-P39 is distributed only in North America. America has more Q-P36 than Q-M3, which is also common in North America, while South America is mostly Q-M3, which roughly corresponds to 67% of paternal line still descended from an Indian family, which is much higher than In South America. North American Indians, rest of paternal line is descended from whites such as R1b-M269 (21.9%) etc. In historical records, although whites killed Indian men, there were indeed white men who fled to Indian tribes and were adopted . Some American film and television works are also described.
The paternal line of this group is binary: one part is white R-M269 (43.8%), I (7.3%), J (9.9%), G-P15 (4.4%) and other, other major part of It is Q-P36 (3.8%), Q-M3 (7.9%) and other Indian components. Hispanics do not have C2-P36 because Hispanic Indians do not have this type. This type is only common in Canada and northwestern United States. States. The Hispanic Q stands for Bee, which epitomizes tragic story of most Indian men in South America. The colonists invaded and killedor men and left women. As a result, less than 10% (0-25%) of South American mestizos were Native American males, and rest of men were white, maternally all Native American women.
Asian descent is most common type of paternal lineage. Traditionally, Asian means only offspring from East Asia, with exception of Pakistan, Iraq, Palestine and other peoples of South and West Asia. Various O-M175s in American-Asian paternal lineage. The ratio is as follows: reaches 88.7%. Among subtypes, O2-M122 is largest (54.8%), in addition, O1a-M119 accounts for 17.7%, and O1b2 accounts for 8.1%. This is contribution of Japanese and Koreans among Asians. C2-M217 was 4.8% and D was 1.6%, which is also unique in East Asia.
Fourthly, mixed blood between main groups
Among five largest populations in US, there is a very obvious fusion of different groups.
In image below, white is white, black is black, dark gray is East Asian, and light gray is Indian. ) Distribution as below:
White people are most dominant and were most powerful in history. White people invaded and, to a certain extent, replaced paternal elements of other groups. Take for example R1b-M269 whites, this type accounts for 58.3% of whites, 43.8% of Hispanics, 17.3% of black patriarchs, 21.9% of Indians and 21.9% of Asians, smallest is 1.6 %.
Blacks have historically been oppressed by whites. The most common black paternal lineage is E-P1, which is 62.0% black but only 0.9% white (by comparison, R1b paternal whites are 17.3% black). , which is 5.8% Hispanic, 1.3% Indian and 1.6% Asian.
Q among Hispanics and Indians used to be America's master, was once 100% in South America, and was also 100% in North America and C2-P39, but now only accounts for 0.7% of whites in US, Blacks 0.2%, Asians 0%. 11.7% among Hispanics and 58.1% among Indians. Recall that common ancestors of Q-M3 and Q-P36 American Indians and Q-L53 and Q-L330 of ancient Siberia and ancient Huns lived 17900-26200 years ago, and common ancestor of Q-M120 Chinese people was 28700-28700-26200 years ago , Indians were not closely related to wealthy Chinese merchants.
Asians are most isolated type from other ethnic groups. The share of O among Asians is 88.7%. This type accounts for 0.5% of whites, 1.6% of Hispanics, 0.3% of blacks and 0% of Indians. Share . It also illustrates embarrassment of Asian American men. With exception of Asian American women or women imported from East Asian metropolitan areas, they rarely marry and have children with women of other nationalities.