In article "Genomic History of Australia" (the genetic history of Australians), an in-depth study of aboriginal population of Australia (the so-called brown race) was carried out. The genetic process over past 50,000 years shows a differentiation process with African populations and continental populations (yellow and white populations), as well as exchange of genes with Neanderthals and Denisovans.
1. Object of study
This article provides a genome-wide analysis of 83 people from 9 Australian Indigenous peoples. The study showed that although their languages are very close and related to Pama-Nyungan languages, their genes are highly differentiated, and this differentiation can be traced back to 25,000-40,000 years ago.
2. The evolutionary process of Australian aborigines
(1) The article presents genes of Australian aborigines and evolutionary process of other populations, as shown in figure below:
1.1.127,000 years ago (83,000-170,000) an African population and an immigrant population first appeared. The African population may be represented by modern Nigerian Yoruba (Yoruba). The immigrant population is common ancestor of Asians, Europeans and Australians. After a long period of evolution, immigrant population has a certain bottleneck due to which some branches are not inherited.
1.2. About 58,000 years ago, emigrant population first differentiated into Australian type and continental type. The continental type is ancestor of modern Eurasian population.
1.3. In a very short period of time since last differentiation, 5.7 years ago, continental types diverged, and ghost population (Ghost) and Eurasian population were differentiated, among which ghost population (Ghost) died out, and genes not transmitted enough. Eurasians are ancestors of later East Asians and Europeans.
1.4.42,000 years ago, Eurasian population was divided into Europeans (represented by Sardinia) and East Asians (represented by Han Chinese).
(2) Integration of Australian Aborigines, Neanderthals and Denisovans
2.1. 60,000 years ago, on average, 2.3% of Neanderthal genes were integrated into migratory populations outside of Africa, leaving people outside of Africa, including Europeans, East Asians, and Australian Aborigines, to have 2.3% of Neanderthal genes.
2.2, 51,000 years ago, 1.1% of Neanderthal genes were integrated into Eurasian population, with result that today's Europeans (represented by Sardinia) and East Asians (represented by Han Chinese in China) have more Neanderthal ancestors than Australians.
2.3. 44,000 years ago, 4.0% Denisovans were integrated into Australian Aboriginal population, resulting in Australian Aboriginals and Papua New Guinea Aboriginals, and there were more Denisovans in mainland population of human gene.
2.4. 29,000 years ago, last batch of Neanderthal genes were integrated into East Asian population, resulting in East Asian population being race with most Neanderthal genes, 0.2% higher on average than Europeans.
(3) Differentiation of Australians themselves
3.1. In a relatively closed environment, Australian Aborigines were first divided into two groups of Papua New Guinean and Australian Aborigines.
3.2 The Australian Aboriginal population is divided into two groups: Aboriginal people of North East and Aboriginal people of South West Desert.
3.3 East Asian populations have been planted in Australia in history and have formed a genetic contribution to northeast population.
There are exchanges between different groups of Aboriginal people. It is generally accepted that at a very late period, Australian Aboriginal language was combined into a similar language by a certain group in northeast, forming Pama-Nyungan language family. , but their genes are conserved independently.
Third, Australian Aboriginal paternal line
There was an article that considered all Australian Aborigines to be C, and considered all Cs to be characteristics of Dwarf Blacks.
From data in this article, we can see that Australian Aboriginal genes are very rich, mainly C1b and K2b and other Aboriginal types, as well as R, O, I, E and other immigrants from Europe and East Asia. White colonists have most R1b, while East Asians have mostly O1a and O2a in Southeast Asia.
The distribution of type C1b (actually C1b2) is slightly higher than that of K2b. This type is associated with sporadic distribution of C1b1 in southern China (C1b1 can be over 1% among ethnic minorities such as Zhuang). In article, this type was found in large numbers in Guangxi around 1500 in ancient times. In ancient times, this type and C1a2 were also found among ancient Europeans, and C1a1 was common among modern Japanese Ainu, which indicates that this type was once distributed throughout Eurasia.
K2b is one of most successful types of our time. Its subtype includes M and S of K2b1, which are common in Australia and Papua New Guinea. P of K2b downstream is ancestor of modern European main body R and American native Q. (It is very interesting that among Aboriginals, and not mixed-race blonds, largest proportion is European R population and Australian Aboriginal population)
Among ancient records, K2b was found at Tianyuandong site in Beijing 40,000 years ago (it is suspected that this person belongs to P). also found in Andaman Islands of DNA, P-M1254 is ancestral type of all later R and Q.
Possible K2b migration route:
①: Type K2 was produced in East Asia 45,000 years ago;
②: Type K2 split into K2a, K2b and other types in East Asia 45,000 years ago, among which K2a was distributed in north, and K2b was distributed in south, and northern K2a was ancestor of N and O.
③: Southern type K2b was divided into clades K2b1 and P 43,000 years ago, among which K2b1 is ancestor of Australians, and P is ancestor of European R and Amerindian Q.
④: K2b1 differentiated into K2b1 in Australia and M and S in Papua New Guinea 41,000 years ago.
⑤: Type P is divided into three clades: P-PF5850 (common in Malaysia), P-BY49600 (common in Philippines), and P-M1254 (ancient Andaman Island DNA) in southern East Asia (or Southeast Asia) ) The three deepest offshoots are all in Southeast Asia, which is enough to explain origin of P in that region.
⑥: Type P-M1254, one of three main branches of P, formed P-P337 (ancient Russian DNA) from Southeast Asia no later than 31,000 years ago, and developed R* (for example, ancient DNA of Russia and Malta) , type Q was bred 28,000 years ago, and two types began to spread from northern Asia around world.
Aboriginal Australian paternal genetic lineage shows that they have lived on Australian continent since their divergence 40,000-50,000 years ago and have inherited it to this day. Although Australian Aborigines have a very small population, their gene wealth and age are much greater than those of East Asians and Europeans, and some subdivisions have survived from 40,000 to 50,000 years to present day. Their pedigree looks like this:
Fourth. Australian Aboriginal autosomes
Aboriginal Australian autosomes can be divided into Australian (Australian Aborigines), Amerindian (India), East Asian (East Asian), European (Europeans), Papuan (New Guinea Aborigines) according to program admixture division K = 5) and so on.
In terms of autosomal analysis, Australian Aborigines, for reasons of white colonists, tend to be influenced by European white genes. isolated).
The genetic contribution of East Asians is mainly from two Aboriginal groups CIA and WPA. These people live in northeast of Australia and are descendants of ancient immigrants from Southeast Asia. Farmers from Southeast Asia also contributed some of paternal O1a-M119 and O2-M122.