The ultimate concept of "civilization" has long been a hallmark of Western establishments and fringe white supremacist politics, ideologically known as "civilization", and prominent in ideology of far right in Australia.
Despite this propensity for violence, far-right civilizers are still largely unsettled, paying homage to colonial origins of settlers, promoting "white civilization", and even inciting terrorist attacks.
It is well documented that civilization is an important part of "white civilization" ideology, an ideology that relies on European technology and environmental idealization to decivilize indigenous lands and peoples.
The concept of civilization is being used as a weapon by extreme right around world.
2019Australian white supremacist Brenton Tarrant terrorized Christchurch, which Christchurch claims was aimed at "calling people to truth attacking our civilization".
The attack was inspired by Anders Breivik's massacre in Norway in 2011, during which he called on white people around world to support violent struggle of "Western Civilization".
A clear admirer of Tarrant, white supremacist who shot 10 blacks at a supermarket in Buffalo, New York in May 2022, has been following plot of The Great Replacement, which is driven by intense "white civilization" paranoia. threatened by non-white immigrants.
The concept of "civilization" has become an important ideological pillar of white supremacy, and we shouldn't risk waiting for another potential massacre before taking far-right civilizations seriously.
The author believes that "civilization" is a broad concept that mainly refers to level of technology, level of etiquette, development of scientific knowledge, religious beliefs and customs, as well as how people build social habitats and meet energy needs.
In ideological world of far right, "civilization" is used to unite white, Western and European countries into a civilized community that is very advanced in all these social, technological and environmental aspects.
It's not surprising that this concept can serve as basis for a whole complex ideology called civilization, which humiliates and racializes entire groups of people.
Based on belief that one ethno-cultural group is socially and materially "civilized" and embodies a completely superior ethno-ecological existence, while other civilizations or truly "uncivilized" swarms threaten their civilization.
Civilization thus refers to whole political-ecological situation in which moral and socio-political front is based on technological and environmental factors that materially define group.
These factors include specific patterns of environmental governance and domination of nature, and in case of far right, European approaches to agriculture, urban development, mining and infrastructure that have been defined by great European powers for centuries, emphasizing their apparent "civilization". nature.
However, it is worth noting that civilization is not meant for Western extremists, for example, Hindu nationalists use characteristics of "Hindu civilization" to support their movement.
With a particularly strong legacy of European expansionism, civilization has taken root in contemporary Western far right, a political category that encompasses those who perhaps most deliberately believe they need to defend "white civilization".
Despite extremism and a propensity for violence, scholarly research on how civilization expresses far-right ideology and how dangerous it has become is lacking.
Despite its diversity, Australian Far Right (AFR) has emerged as an important incubator for civilizational movement, and Australian Far Right (AFR) has not separated from its historical ensemble in terms of myth-making about what it means. Being "civilized" has always had a unique advantage.
AFR groups and figures who describe themselves in movement as thought leaders, thinkers and cultural observers are most likely to interact with Australians in context of identity, society and history around discussion of "civilization".
How did European and settler colonial environmental factors shape and influence civilizational ideology of AFR from 1930s to present, and how can this be understood through relationship between racism and ecology?
This exposes two narrative modes:(1) Historical revisionism, which and white mythic past of European techno-ecological exploits, creates a civilizational historical myth for Australian white supremacists.
(2) The development of "civilized" and "savage" archetypes, respectively, by European settlers and their Australian descendants, and by Australian Aborigines who see European ecology as supreme antithesis of pre-contact Australian landscape.
(3) The first emphasizes AFR's reliance on broader European historical myths, and second reveals civilizational colonial theory of AFR settlers, both models suggesting that this ideology works through narrative form using environmental factors. develop a compelling far-right vision.
To get started with far right in Australia (AFR), which is generally considered less visible and less studied than far right in Europe and North America, attempts to understand fundamental nature of AFR must first try to define what happens within broader historical and political environmental conditions that made white supremacy in Australia possible in first place.
Understanding AFR from this interdisciplinary perspective, with an emphasis on attractive ecology, means recognizing that white supremacy refers to a particular living system that organizes and governs human and non-human beings.
This includes industrial technologies and land-based energy practices that contributed to European civilizational mission that gave birth to Australian nation.
Studying how this legacy shaped AFR ideology may shed light on ideological function of civilizations and its relation to broader phenomenon of racial environments.
To do this, it is necessary to view far-right ideology not as purely political, but as dependent on material structures and institutions that drove European colonialism, ecologies that support and give civilizational ideology its apparent credibility.
It is noteworthy that Brown et al. warn against doing research on far right because research ignores that conceptualization of far right "carries heavy ideological, especially neoconservative and liberal, 'baggage' compared to mainstream."
Therefore, when discussing ideological work of AFR civilizational movement, question of how it fits into larger Australian political landscape cannot be overlooked.
The "civilization" of white Europe, of course, is not only a set of extremist political ecologies, but is also inscribed in main narratives of modern European development institutions.Evolution of AFR for white Australian settlers
1788 The European civilizational narrative came to Australia with settlers, introduced settlers' colonial ideology, made Australian landscape wild and desolate"Unclaimed Land", and equated European land-based energy practices with excellent civilization building.
The Aboriginal people are thus classified as uncivilized and inhuman, which justifies invasion of their land and eradication of their culture, an attempt to preserve and establish a "civilized" Australia Settlers of a colonial complex are predicted in 20th century.
After first Parliament of Commonwealth of Australia passed legislation in 1901 deporting thousands of Pacific sugar workers from North Queensland, Immigration Restriction Act was passed to ensure that no other "non-white" people be able to settle in Australia.
No one took it for anything other than ensuring that White Australia Politics, Australian Far Right (AFR), emerged from this racial nationalist political landscape and competed with international Dialogue on political climate. .
The spread of AFR groups began in 1930s, fueled in large part by Great Depression, an anti-communist agenda, and a determination to preserve a white Australia. paramilitary organization led by G.
During Second World War, various National Socialist groups in Australia increased under influence of German and international fascism, but were also influenced by local Odinism of Alexander Rude Mills. Influenced by Fascist spiritual messages, he supported Nazi-Fascist Australia. movement.
The Australian Human Rights Alliance, Australia's oldest far-right organization, also emerged during this period of intense anti-communism and white nationalism, inspiring copycat groups in New Zealand, Canada and UK.
There was a brief lull among Nazi groups in post-World War II Australia, especially with resurgence of the National Socialist Party of Australia in 1968.
Many movements and groups have sprung up in defense of white Australian identity against Whitlam's policies, and with disappearance of white Australia, there has been a desire to revive anti-immigration sentiment.
Organizations such as Australian National Front have ties to other sister organizations in New Zealand and South Africa, proving that strong international ties and a Eurocentric orientation remain a defining feature of post-World War II African revolutions.
Anti-immigrant rhetoric among AFR groups and parties after White Australia politics became particularly active in anti-Asian rhetoric, as evidenced by Australian nationalist movement in 1985, and eventually in politics of Islamophobia among contemporary actors.
While rally for white Australian identity through immigrant xenophobia set tone of AFR throughout 20th century, internal anti-Aboriginal racism remained a constant constant.
The 1967 referendum on rights of indigenous peoples was one of many occasions that sparked racist boycotts and rallies by AFR groups.
Thus, while anti-Asian and anti-Islamic racism are most recent and popular iterations of AFR racial ideology, AFR civilization in Australia is deeply rooted in colonial settler ideology that led original Australia to dehumanize inhabitants to establish and justify Australia, which is considered civilized.
Thus, while further research should explore other contexts of racialization in AFR ideology, concern for Aboriginal lands and peoples was at heart of AFR's civilizational approach and thus is focus here.
Today, Australia's First Party, oldest far-right party, regularly calls Australia's Aboriginal culture backward and its people thugs and rapists.
Furthermore, a group of contemporary far-right content creators calling themselves "thinkers" and "intellectuals" within movement are strongly opposed to Aboriginal people, especially in their iterations of Australian and European history when it was a white civilization.
These include digital media platforms as well as bloggers/authors who call themselves "civilized conservatives". All of them are active on Internet, often collaborating, offering both support and criticism of right-wing parties. .
Online platforms and thought leaders themselves interview and support these Australian far right (AFR) hate groups, including True Blue Crew and National Socialist Network.
With a limited online presence, these groups promote their ideals through vandalism and rallies against Aboriginal culture, as well as non-white immigrants, and advertise natural superiority of white Australians.
They are also trying to infiltrate party politics, as seen in Anning case, and in 2018, New South Wales National Party banned its politicians from being associated with neo-Nazi groups such as New Guard, Antioch Pod. Resistance and Guys Association, 22 people were previously investigated for their association with these groups.
While these openly active and politically minded hate groups have attracted more attention for their violent tendencies, aforementioned online actors have made more efforts to express, articulate and spread ideology of AFR.
So, while not explicitly collaborating, they play different but complementary roles in advancing Australian Far Right (AFR).
Australia's first prime minister, Edmund Barton, reiterated his prediction that non-whites would dominate politics and trade unless whites defended their country to save great "white civilization"
ABC News, Scott Morrison's first speech before Parliament in 2008. Google Scholar
What happened to ABC Religion and Ethics Australian Civilization in 2019?
Adas M. "Machine as a measure of man"