The life of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty can be called a great talent or a military strategy. After Maia conspiracy, he waged wars almost every year and made great efforts in construction. Both war and civil construction require a lot of money. During several years of wars of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, wealth accumulated over decades in Western Han Dynasty was squandered. Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty continued to increase taxes, promulgated Bill and Prosecution Law, and competed with people for profits, leading to people's poverty and halving world's population. During last years of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, empire saw a tendency for dark clouds to cover city and local uprisings to break out. Fortunately, Han Emperor Wu finally repented, changed his militaristic methods, and returned to path of recovery, allowing Han Dynasty to continue.First, end of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty: it is about to rain and wind has filled building
How did Western Han dynasty develop during era of Emperor Wu of Han dynasty? Some people use "the prosperous age of Emperor Wu" to describe it, but there is no such saying in ancient China. The ancients saw very clearly that during reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, national power was strong and territory was vast, but people lived in a desperate situation, which can be described as "the country is strong and people are poor."
During early years of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, he fought against Xiongnu and ruled western regions, sending troops to Korea, South Vietnam, and Southwestern Yi. The scale of war was unprecedented. War is a money-burning machine. Soon after Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty came to power, empire faced a severe financial crisis, and wealth accumulated in Western Han Dynasty for decades was squandered. To solve financial problem, Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty increased taxation of people. In agriculture, land rent was increased from "thirty taxes one" to "eleven taxes", tax on adults (poll tax) was increased from 40 to 120, and tax on minors from 20 to 23. Thus, burden of farmers by time of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, it had already reached level of Qin Dynasty, that is, about two-thirds of farmers' income had been transferred. In terms of industry and commerce, Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty promoted an official salt and iron camp to compete with people for profit. Moreover, promulgation of law on account of money and on collection of money, that is, on seizure of property of industrial and commercial people, finally led to bankruptcy of entrepreneurs above middle level in country.
Battle of Han Dynasty
The war between Han Dynasty and Xiongnu was basically won 116 years ago, at which time two countries could not fight again. However, Han Dynasty Emperor Wu did not stop foreign war. In order to obtain Dawang's hard-earned BMW, Li Guangli did not hesitate to send a large army on an expedition, resulting in a large number of soldiers dying outside of Yumen Pass. . Take your life Every year, bones of war are buried outside wasteland, and apples end up in Han family." both times failed: once Li Ling was forced to surrender, second time Li Guangli was forced to surrender. It can be said that all of early wars of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty were wars of great talent and strategy, but in later period they were militaristic.
Lee Ling and Su Wu
The continuation of war undoubtedly increased social burden. It can be said that in last years of reign of Emperor Wu, peasant uprisings in empire were growing. The Hanshu Biography of Western Regions mentions reign of Emperor Wu: “The power of people has been subdued, and financial resources have been depleted. Because of this, robbers and robbers rise together ... ”107 years ago, there were already 2 million refugees in Kanto, place could no longer cope. It is recorded in history that in last years of reign of Emperor Wu, there were large-scale peasant uprisings, such as “Nanyang - Mei Mian and Bai Zheng, Chu - Yin Zhong and Du Shao, Qi - Xu Bo, and between Yan and Zhao there are Jian Lu and Fan Sheng. Throughout today's Kanto region, even in Guanzhong. Peasant uprisings are often a prelude to coming collapse of a dynasty. In last years of Invincible Empire, position of empire is very much like "the mountain is about to come and wind is full."
Pairing Plow in Han Dynasty2. Longtai to Blame: The Transformation of Han Dynasty State Administration
In first 90 years, Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty suffered biggest blow of his life. First of all, in palace, since Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty believed in alchemy, this eventually led to "witchcraft disaster" in which Prince Liu Ju and Queen Wei died. In foreign wars, Li Guangli surrendered to Xiongnu, which made Emperor Wu despondent. In second year, Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty began to reflect on mistakes he had made in decades since he came to power. According to Zizhi Tongjian, Emperor Wu said after entrusting Zen to Mount Tai in 89 B.C. regret it. who hurts people and destroys world, let him go.”
Thereafter, Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty made two important adjustments to national policy. On inside, we have begun to change old policy of competing with people for profits and are back on road to recovery. He appointed Tian Qianqiu as prime minister and named him "Marquis of Rich", hoping that he could revive imperial economy and make people rich again, "rest in light, think about being rich, and feed people". He restored agricultural-oriented strategic road, announced that "the current task is to cultivate agriculture", appointed Zhao Guo as captain of Sou Su, and promoted Daitian method to restore economy. Outwardly, we began to reduce gains. When Sang Hongyang and others offered to station troops in Longtai, Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty firmly refused. .I can't hear it now." . In order to show changes in his government strategy to ministers of empire, he issued "Luntai Edict of Guilt", proposing that main task today is "forbidding tyranny, stopping unauthorized taxation, forcing farmers, repairing horses, restoration To fill gap, There is no shortage of weapons."
At that time, Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty was old and no longer believed in art of immortality. Thus Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty also considered his empire after his death. Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty chose Huo Guang, Jin Richang, San Hongyang, Shangguan Ze, etc. as his thighs to help young Liu Fuling. To prevent foreign relatives from intervening again in politics, Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty had Lady Gouyi assassinated after making Liu Fuling a prince to avoid future problems. History can prove that group led by Huo Guang faithfully followed path of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty to recover and recuperate, and stabilized situation in Han Dynasty.
The Sin of Longtai, committed by Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, was second change in philosophy of ruling country of Han Dynasty. The first change came after coming to power of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, who pursued a promising policy, fought abroad, carried out large-scale reforms at home, carried out large-scale construction projects, and respected only Confucianism. The first transformation made Han Dynasty a great dynasty, and second transformation allowed Han Dynasty to continue.Third, Zhaoxuan rule: success of recovery continues
Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty passed away three years after promulgation of Edict of Wine, and newly minted Liu Fuling (Emperor Zhao of Han Dynasty) was only nine years old. The steering wheel of empire was in hands of Huo Guang and other ministers. Some argue that Zhaoxuan era was era of Huo Guang's dictatorship, but in fact new emperor was young and ministers only had to follow example of Duke of Zhou to stabilize situation. Emperor Wu once clearly stated to Huo Guang that "the youngest son should be installed and king would do work of Duke of Zhou." After Huo Guang came to power, he introduced some measures such as light corvée and thin tax, abolition of tax increases during reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, and reduction or exemption from land rent and oral tax. The implementation of this policy made it possible to quickly restore dried-up economy. During reign of Emperor Zhaodi of Han Dynasty, "the refugees returned for a while, fields were opened, and quite a lot of savings accumulated."
However, previous recovery was carried out only in agriculture, which has certain limitations. Traditional ministers led by San Hongyang in North Korea and China still insisted on old policy of expansion. In response to this phenomenon, Assistant Ministers held famous "Salt and Iron Conference". In fact, yante meeting revolved around three questions: whether to continue with official yante camp, second whether to fight or make peace with Xiongnu, benevolence and justice" or "rights". At a meeting between Huo Guang-led group and San Hongyang group, there was a standoff, causing San Hongyang group to fail and be forced to abandon their previous strategy. Since then, empire has fully embarked on a strategic path of rejuvenation.
After death of Emperor Zhao of Han, not only Emperor Xuan of Han inherited throne, Huo Guang still supported government, and policy of recovery continued. After Huo Guang's death, Emperor Xuan of Han Dynasty still insisted on this policy. During reign of Emperor Xuan of Han Dynasty, he reduced or freed land rent by 6 times, most among emperors of Western Han Dynasty. Emperor Xuan of Han Dynasty also attached great importance to management of officials, so number of good officials during reign of Emperor Xuan of Han Dynasty was also largest in Western Han Dynasty. Starting from Zhaoxuan period, they all adhered to same management policy and forced economy to continue to recover, this era in history was called "Zhaoxuan's reign".Government and religion are clear, laws are enforced, borders are secure, four barbarians are nearby, Shan Yu's money is blocked, world is prosperous, people are happy, and rules are timeless. Taizong (Emperor Wen). —— Liu Xiang
From end of reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty to death of Emperor Xuan of Han Dynasty, a total of more than 40 years elapsed. During these 40 years, government of Western Han Dynasty gradually helped Western Han Dynasty to rid world of poverty at end of Emperor Wu's reign by restoring cultivation policy of early Han Dynasty, and brought Han Dynasty back to life. One of important reasons why entire Han Dynasty lasted 400 years was because rulers constantly changed their management strategies according to actual situation. Zhaoxuan's reign continued Western Han Dynasty, and later Liu Xiu's "rest and recuperation" also contributed greatly to continuation of Han Dynasty.