During Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, land of Huaxia was dotted with various ethnic groups. Generally speaking, there are several major groups of ancient Qiang, Yi, Miaoman, Bashu, Baiyue, and Southwestern Yi.
Ancient Qiang was also called Zhongdi, and totem was a sheep. The Yanhuang people are descended from ancient Qiang. They were common in Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi and Shanxi. Until Spring and Autumn period, Jiang's surnames Rong and Ji still existed.
And they shoot well with a bow, and their totems are birds. They are mainly distributed in Shandong Peninsula and Huai River Basin in east, and they are called "Dongyi". The founder of Shang Dynasty was a Yi branch.
Miao Man in ancient times was called "Three Miao", "Jing Man" during Shang Dynasty, and State of Chu was founded during Western Zhou Dynasty.
Bayue is located in southeast coastal region, mainly including Wuyue, Yangyue, Donggou, Minyue, Nanyue, Siou, Luoyue and so on. Hanshu Geographical Records reports that Baiyue's distribution is "seven or eight thousand miles from Jiaozhi to Kuaiji, and there are different places in Baiyue, each with its own caste."
Bashu is also Cuban and ancient Shu kingdoms in Sichuan region. They created an advanced bronze civilization.
After founding of Western Zhou Dynasty, Zhou people considered themselves successors of Xia dynasty, so they called themselves "Xia people" and "Huaxia" and vassal states that were assigned to Central Plains were collectively called "Zhuxia". In fact, Zhou people are also descended from Qiang, and they are most advanced branch of Qiang nationality. The Zhou people are also a nation born from years of intermarriage between Ji and Jiang. After Zhou people established Zhou Dynasty, they named ethnic groups scattered around them "Dongyi", "Beidi", "Xirong", and "Nanman", collectively referred to as "Siyi". Ethnic relations developed between Huayi and barbarians.
Huaxia and Shii
During spring and autumn period, when countries were waging long wars for hegemony, a large-scale merger of siyi and huaxia took place. The Qin state continued to fight Sirun and annexed a large number of Rong countries; The Jin state continued to attack Beidi; The State of Qi annexed Lai and other Eastern Yi countries. This phenomenon of annexation allowed "Xi" to integrate into Chinese civilization. In south, Chu State, Wu State, and Yue State have absorbed a large amount of Chinese culture and have been continuously integrated into Chinese system.
Spring and autumn map
During Warring States period, each country's centralized power system was established, and speed of each country's outward expansion accelerated. The State of Qin annexed Bashu, State of Chu unified middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, State of Yan united Liaoxi and Liaodong, State of Zhao annexed State of Zhongshan and conquered Lufan and Linhu. This expansion basically established later Huaxia civilizational circle and also laid groundwork for unification of Qin.
In 221 BC. The Qin Dynasty unified six kingdoms. The Qin dynasty then conquered Baiyue region. During reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, he conquered South Vietnam, East Vietnam, and Southwestern Yi and occupied Hexi Corridor. At this time, Baiyue and Qiang peoples merged even more with Huaxia people. Thus was born a new nation, that is, Han people. However, it should be noted that integration of Baiyue, Southwestern and Western Qiang into Han people is a long process.
The territory of Qin Dynasty
Second integration: Five people go to China
During Wei and Jin dynasties, nomads such as Xiongnu, Xianbei, Jie, Qiang, and Di in north began to enter Central Plains en masse and began to form a second large-scale ethnic integration. At end of Western Jin Dynasty, these ethnic minorities started "Yongjia Rebellion" which led to decline of Western Jin Dynasty.
After fall of Western Jin dynasty, two important trends of ethnic integration emerged. Large numbers of Han people migrated to southeast, which accelerated integration with Baiyue people. Secondly, northern nomads moved into northern region. They continued to absorb cultural practices of Han people and began to become Sinicized.
During Eastern Jin Dynasty, there were wars in Sixteen Kingdoms in north, but many ethnic groups studied culture of Han people. For example, former Qin Dynasty approved idea of ruling country with Confucianism. During Northern and Southern Dynasties, Tuoba clan of Xianbei people united sixteen countries and founded "Northern Wei Dynasty". Queen Mother Hu and Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei Dynasty vigorously promoted a comprehensive sinization policy that gradually integrated Xianbei people and other ethnic groups who entered Central Plains into Han people. After Northern Wei Dynasty, ethnic minorities that entered Central Plains were mostly Sinicized.
The national merging of Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties brought fresh blood to Han people and created conditions for a larger unification. In 589 BC Sui dynasty unified Chen dynasty and finally completed unification of north and south. The later Tang Dynasty became stronger and Tang Dynasty royal family had blood of Xianbei people.The Third Integration: Building Chinese Nation
After fall of Tang Dynasty, Han people's sphere of influence was mostly limited to south of Great Wall. However, ethnic groups in Northeast have become stronger again. The Khitans established Liao kingdom in northeast. The Liao state introduced Northern and Southern court system, using Han to control Han and barbarians to control barbarians, with great results. The Liao Kingdom also continued to absorb Han culture, and eventually Khitan people gradually became Sinicized. After fall of Liao kingdom, Western Liao Kingdom promoted Han culture in western regions. Later, Central Asia and Russia called China "Chitan", which means that it was under influence of Liao kingdom.
After Jin Kingdom destroyed Liao Kingdom and Northern Song Dynasty, it occupied Central Plains and a large number of Jurchens migrated to hinterland. After decades and hundreds of years of integration, by time Mongolia destroyed gold, there was no difference between Han nationality and Jurchen nationality in the Central Plains, and they were collectively referred to as "Han people".
In 13th century, Mongols rebelled and successively destroyed Western Liao Dynasty, Western Xia, Jin, Tubo, Dali, and Southern Song, completed unification of East Asia, and established unprecedentedly vast Yuan Dynasty. Mongolia also studied culture of Central Plains when it entered Central Plains, but its own degree of sinicization was very insufficient and ultimately failed. However, removal of separatist regime of Southern Song dynasty by Yuan dynasty also created conditions for national unity. During this period, cultures of western regions, Central Asia and other places began to merge with cultures of north and south, and Yuan opera flourished.
After founding of Ming Dynasty, a strict policy of separating Hua from barbarians was implemented, resulting in little gain in terms of territory. However, Ming Dynasty achieved unprecedented success in southwestern region. Zhu Yuanzhang vigorously promoted policy of emigration and deployment of troops in southwestern region, which accelerated reform of southwestern region and made Yunnan-Guizhou region gradually incorporated into Han culture. area on mainland.
After founding of Qing Dynasty, Ming Dynasty was abolished and "Discrimination Between Hua and Yi" was introduced, and Han nationality and surrounding ethnic groups were considered Chinese nationalities. For first time, Qing dynasty used China as a country name in diplomacy, which laid legal foundation for China. The Qing Dynasty expanded its borders and basically unified East Asian continent, laying foundation for what is now China. After Qing dynasty entered into customs, Manchus actively learned culture of Han people. By end of Qing dynasty, Manchus differed little from Han nationality. Since then, Liang Qichao at end of Qing Dynasty put forward concept of Chinese nation, and revolutionaries like Sun Yat-sen put forward idea of a "republic of five ethnic groups".