In Wenquan County, Bortala Prefecture, Xinjiang, there is famous Adong Qiaolu site, which is Chinese "stone labyrinth". In 2012, it was selected as one of "top ten archaeological discoveries in China"< /strong>. Over past five years, archaeological team has carried out archaeological excavations at F1 main site and obtained many new archaeological discoveries. These ruins are 4000 years old, there is a stone labyrinth of 400 square meters, which was expanded from a living room of 60 square meters, however, after expansion, site was abandoned and later became a cemetery.
There are about 100 tombs in Adun Qiaolu ruin area, including over 60 stone tombs and over 30 stone tombs. The Shizh tombs have a square stone fence protruding to ground about half a meter high in form of a fence with a tomb in middle; stone-piled tombs are covered with stones from surface, mostly round in shape, without stone fences outside. Among discovered funerary items are gold and copper earrings, copper knives, clay pots, bones of horses, cattle, sheep, seeds of barley, millet and other plants. The bones of domestic horses found there are earliest remains of bones of domestic horses in China. Scholars believe that "two thousand years ago, domesticated horses from pastures of Central Asia could have been exported to Central Plains of China through this place." Currently, earliest skeleton of a domesticated horse in world appeared in Kazakhstan about 5500 years ago.
According to analysis of found skulls, owner of tomb belongs to mixed features of Caucasoid and Mongolian races. According to DNA analysis, this is a typical European population. According to Chinese history books, earliest people here were Dingling and others, about 3,200 years ago, later than this place. It can be seen that as early as 4,000 years ago, nomadic peoples of Eurasian continent had already begun to communicate. Millet from East Asia spread to West through nomads, barley from West Asia spread to East Asia through nomads, bronzes were also spread by nomads. For a long time people considered nomads as barbarians and enemies of civilization. However, in ancient times, nomads were intermediaries in exchange between major civilizations.
In 2015, out of more than 90 tombs in Adong Qiaolu area, only two tombs with standing stone figures were excavated. What puzzles scientists is that these are two empty tombs, each of which has an area of about 4 square meters. The owner of tomb is not found in tomb, but each has a sheep's shoulder blade size of a palm. Some of stone figures found in ruins are actually a cone-shaped stone about 1 m high, standing upright on eastern edge of tomb. mouth in shape of an oval face. Stone figures in cemetery are one of typical cultural phenomena of mountain pastures, widespread in Eurasian pastures. Altai Territory is richest area of pasture cemetery stone figures in my country. The stone figures in Early Bronze Age cemetery mostly face east, and stone figures focus only on facial expressions, round faces and round eyes.
When I saw stone man in cemetery, I thought of Simao ruins in Shaanxi. The Simao Site in Yulin, Shaanxi Province, may be seat of Yellow Emperor 4,000 years ago. Stone heads 50 cm high and 60 cm wide were found here, carved in high relief. The stone faces have square faces, large eyes and half-open mouths that appear to be smiling. Is there any connection between Simao site and nomads? Many scholars now believe that Yellow Emperor was a nomad. At present, thanks to discovery of human bones, it is tentatively concluded that ethnic groups at Simao site are closely related to Gansu and Qinghai regions. History textbooks prove that Huangdi and Beidi clans belong to same people, "there is a country of Beidi, grandson of Yellow Emperor is called Shijun, and Shijun was born in Beidi."
Stone carver at Shimao site
More than 20 bone harpsichords have been found in an "abandoned cluster" at top of northern parapet of Taidong Imperial City at Simao site, which is earliest discovered in China. The harmonica is a musical instrument of ethnic minorities in China, popular among Mongols, Qiang, Daurs, Orokens, Evenks, Hezhens, Manchus and other nomadic ethnic minorities in north. Foreign Eskimos, Indians, Nordic Lapps, Hokkaido Ainu, etc. are also good at these tools. It can be seen that these utensils do not belong to traditional ethnic groups of Central Plains.
Harmonica on Shimao