In 2014, German Chancellor Angela Merkel presented 1735 Map of China to Chinese leaders at a banquet. Merkel said, "This is first map drawn by Germany. An accurate map of China." strong>" Various versions of this map are circulating on Internet. Actually, this map contains only eighteen Han provinces. Maybe in At that time, there were only 18 provinces in China?What is real situation?
Correct map and geographic description of Chinese Empire or China
This map was compiled by German geographer Johann Matthias Haas and its full title is "Correct Map and Geographical Description of Chinese Empire or China". The source of map is also indicated on map: “This map is a collection of provincial maps made by Jesuit missionaries in various provinces on orders of Emperor Kangxi. French royal family. Geographer Donwell reduced this version to this version, and now redraws it according to appropriate projection method." Now I understand that basemap of map was drawn by Kangxi Emperor, and Germans used a new method of redrawing projections.
So what is this map ordered by Emperor Kangxi to be drawn? Answer: Huangyu Panpan Map. In 1683, Qing dynasty unified Taiwan. The Kangxi Emperor believed that "the territory is diverse, territory is vast, and geography of Fangyu is different from past and present." Qing Dynasty". However, due to lack of geographical knowledge and backwardness of cartographic and cartographic technologies at time, it was impossible to obtain accurate maps. Kangxi excitedly said, “Either province has a big map but no small one; in province there are miles and miles, but no borders; Or in province there are borders, but no miles ... ".
In 1689, China and Russia held Nerchinsk negotiations. The ignorance of northern frontier by Chinese has again and again led to passivity of negotiations. Fortunately, map of Asia brought by French missionaries was hardly supported. After negotiations, Kangxi Emperor decided to use state power to conduct a large-scale mapping survey throughout country.
In order for project to be realized, Emperor Kangxi had been preparing for it for 10 years. These preparatory activities include hiring missionaries to train Chinese surveying and cartographic personnel, importing world's most advanced surveying and mapping instruments from Guangzhou and Macau, etc., establishing institutions and appointing officials, etc. In 1708, project was officially launched, and evacuated personnel began to arrive throughout country, and they evacuated with most advanced Western knowledge. Mapping and mapping are divided into three stages: first stage is surveying and mapping Great Wall and Northeast, second stage is surveying and mapping interior provinces, and third stage is surveying and mapping Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
The project was finally completed in 1717. Subsequently, surveyors and cartographers transferred and combined maps of various provinces and provinces, and completed entire map in 1718, which Kangxi called "Huangyu Quanpan Map". This map has at least three meanings in Chinese history: First, it is first accurate national map. Previous maps were either limited to south of Great Wall of China, or coastline was abstract. Secondly, concept of state borders first appeared on map. Previous maps of China never showed national borders, but this map only shows China, which is also an important basis for territorial negotiations in later generations. Thirdly, surveying and mapping is also a great geographical discovery. For first time, map included Sakhalin Island and most of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (including Sanjiangyuan, Mount Everest) and other areas on map, filling in gaps in people's perceptions. knowledge.
Sakhalin on map
Needham rated it as "the best map of all of Asia at time. It was better and more accurate than any European map of time." However, since Kangxi did not destroy Dzungar Khanate, there is no Western Region on map. Only after Dzungar was destroyed in 1757 did Qianlong use same method to survey and map western regions and improve this map.
Sign of Everest and Brahmaputra
Many Western missionaries have been instrumental in mapping and have made enormous contributions. For example, Shan Yaochan was attacked by miasma while surveying and mapping in Yunnan and sadly died. Fei Yin fell ill after returning from Yunnan, so Lei Xiaoxi surveyed and mapped Guizhou and Huguang for him, and finally died of illness in Beijing in 1738. . In fact, most of these surveying and mapping missionaries died of illness in Beijing, and most of them were also buried in Zhengfu Temple Cemetery in Beijing.
In 1723, Italian missionary Ma Guoxian brought detailed information from this map to Europe, which made a splash among European geographers. Since then, European countries have been using this map to compile a new map of China. The German map of China is one of the outstanding achievements.
World map from early Qing Dynasty (part of Eastern Hemisphere)
Since Kangxi Emperor ordered entire map to be studied and mapped, why did Germany only send maps of eighteen Han provinces? In fact, this map is only part of big picture. The original map drawn by Donwell is called "Complete Map of Chinese Tatars and Tibet", and map provided by Germany is only a part of whole map, that is, map of China's provinces and regions. Main reference 18 provincial maps of "Huangyu Panpan Maps" were compiled.
"Complete map of Tatars and Tibet of China" by Donville
Haas has never been to China, and basic information for this map comes from French Sinologist Duerd. In 1735, Du Halde published Complete Chronicles of Chinese Geography, History, Politics, and Geography. Descriptions of geography, history, chronology, politics and nature of Chinese Empire, Chinese Tatars, Korea and Tibet. , as well as special and accurate records of their customs, habits, rites, religion, arts and sciences, with rare maps and various copper engravings. The book is actually an encyclopedia about China.
The book contains a large number of Chinese maps, 42 of which were drawn by French royal geographer Donville. Donville drew 211 maps of different regions of world during his lifetime, and his achievements are outstanding: today city of Donville and Donville Street in France and Canada are named in his memory. The Comprehensive Map of Tatars of China and Tibet he drew refers to Huangyu Panlan Map, which is also most influential work of his life. Haas improved map.
According to information on map, they divided China into Chinese Empire (Eighteen Han Provinces), Tatar (Mongolia), North Korea and Tibet. Why are eighteen provinces of Han called Empire of China? The reason is that at that time only monarchs who ruled in Central Plains were called emperors, and everyone was called "empire", and those around them were generally called "khans". The map presented to Chinese leaders by Merkel from Germany is titled "Correct Map and Geographical Description of Chinese Empire or China", showing that it is part of eighteen Han provinces.