The 2011 Journal of Molecular Biology Research article "Napoleon I's Y-Chromosome Haplogroup" details results of a genetic analysis of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte.
1. Research methods
Researchers have successfully extracted DNA data using a portion of hair and at least three beards of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, stored at Vivant-Denon at Musée Bertrand.
This is Napoleon's hair under a microscope.
The retrieved trace element information looks like this:
2. Data on paternal Y-chromosome
Napoleon Bonaparte's paternal Y chromosome type has been confirmed to be E1b1b1c1. This E1b1b type is widely distributed around the Mediterranean, with a high frequency in North Africa and around 10-20% in southern France and Corsica.
Below is Y-chromosome STR analysis data.
Third, comparing descendants
When comparing DNA of Charles Napoleon, heir of Napoleon's brother Jerome in fourth generation, it was found that types of Y-chromosome in both of them are exactly same.
Fourth, additional research in 2015
In 2015, "New Advances in Napoleon I's Y-Chromosome Haplotype Reconstruction Based on His Three Living Descendants," a researcher's study of three others or descendants of Bonaparte family found that 2011 study was completely correct. Yes, Napoleon's family father type is E1b1b1c1.
The 2015 study provided more detailed data on suspicious transactions (data on 106 suspicious transactions).
And analysis shows that E1b of genus Bonaparte clearly differs from E1b of North Africa and West Asia, age of its differentiation is earlier, and it belongs to descendants of early Near Eastern agricultural population that immigrated to Europe (according to time indicated in other documents, this time may be 6000-4000 years ago), Bonaparte family migrated from North Africa not very late.