Before Qing Dynasty, word "China" was not a country name, but a regional concept, mainly referring to Central Plains. People often refer to Central Plains as "Huasha" and "Kyushu", while other surrounding ethnic areas are referred to as "Shiyi". As Yuan and Qing dynasties entered Central Plains, concept of word "China" began to rise from a place name to name of country of China. In past, narrow national concept of distinction between Hua and barbarians was gradually replaced by a new national concept of a republic of five ethnic groups. This change in concept is adapted to China's domestic and international situation, and provides a reasonable legal interpretation of China's territory.1. The national concept of difference between Huai and barbarians.
In ancient times, Zhou people in Yellow River basin had a very strong sense of national superiority. The Zhou people called place where they lived Central Plains, or China, which means in world. The surrounding ethnic groups were divided into Dongyi, Beidi, Nanman, Sirong, etc., collectively referred to as Siyi. In fact, before Zhou Dynasty, there was no difference between Huaxia and Siyi. According to division of Zhou people, for example, Dayu was from Western Qiang, and Shang Dynasty came from Eastern Yi. However, this worldview of Zhou people influenced China for thousands of years .The Huaxia and Han people living in Central Plains always call Yellow River basin "China" and denounce rest as barbarians.
However, this concept changed with arrival of northern nomads in Central Plains. After Xianbei founded Northern Wei Dynasty and unified Central Plains, they named Southern Han Dynasty "Daoyi" and called themselves China. The later Liao and Jin countries also referred to themselves as China. However, it should be noted that China here is name of regional color, not name of country. However, this declaration began to influence Huayi system, which was championed by Huaxia and Han peoples.
During Yuan Dynasty, word "China" first became name of country. The Weicheng Song, sung at Yuan Dynasty Ancestral Temple, says "Huifu, China, Weijing Byanting"; a Yuan Dynasty letter to Japan states: “Japan is close to Goryeo. There is no such thing as a messenger to reconcile world." The emperor of Yuan Dynasty wanted to make a crusade against Vietnam, but prime ministers Wangjie and Pingzhang Buhu said, "A small barbarian country is not enough to work for China." Prior to Yuan dynasty, successive dynasties referred to ethnic minorities in country as "barbarians" and Han lands in Central Plains as "China". However, Yuan dynasty itself was founded by Mongols, and one cannot use same set of past dynasties, so all places under Yuan dynasty are called "China", and those outside Yuan dynasty were called "barbarians". This initiative advocates that all ethnic groups under rule of the dynasty be Chinese nationalities, so it is of great importance.
However, people in Han region of Central Plains did not accept this view for a long time. During Zhu's rebellion, Yuanzhang used slogan "drive out barbarians and restore China", which meant driving out barbarians and restoring Chinese power. Obviously, national concept of Zhu Yuanzhang still remained in era of distinction between Hua and barbarians. After Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew Yuan Dynasty, he also had to accept that Ming Dynasty had inherited many laws and regulations and most of territory of Yuan Dynasty, so he was also forced to recognize orthodox status of Yuan Dynasty. However, Zhu Yuanzhang expelled the Mongols from China and unified Mongolia as "Yuan ruled over China".
Tang Taizong's national outlook is clearly wiser than that of Zhu YuanzhangSecondly, China has officially become name of Motherland.
After clearing customs, Qing Dynasty, like Yuan Dynasty, declared itself China. In 1644, Qing Dynasty moved its capital to Beijing and paid homage to heaven and earth: "Here is Yanjing tripod to perpetuate China." In "Records of Ancestors of Qing Dynasty", Shunzhi Ryukyu's credentials are recorded: "I rule Central Plains, consider world as one family, and think that Ryukyu has served China since ancient times." Judging by literature of Qing Dynasty, ethnic minorities were not dismissed as "barbarians", but all these ethnic groups were included within China's sphere of influence.
Qing dynasty territory
In 1688, Qing dynasty and Russia held Nerchinsk negotiations, and later signed Nerchinsk Treaty. It is very significant that Suoetu, negotiator sent by Qing Dynasty, was named "Minister of Imperial Envoy of Great Sage of China, Minister of Debates, Minister of State and Minister of Interior". The name of country signed in "Nerchinsk Treaty" is not Qing dynasty, but China. For first time in history, word "China" was signed in an international treaty, and this also means that China has officially become name of our Motherland. Before that, we were called Han, Tang, Song, Ming, etc. Now we are all called China.
Yaksinsky battle and Treaty of Nerchinsk
The entry of Qing Dynasty will inevitably face resistance from Han in Central Plains. Many people hold to traditional concept of distinction between Hua and barbarians, thinking that Qing dynasty was satisfied and China perished. Qian Qianyi, a cartilaginous man of letters, wrote in his poem: "The sea cape, rock and mountain line are tilted, and henceforth they will not belong to China." This sentence was used by Konan Naito in Japan and was adapted into "There will be no China after Yashan, and there will be no China after death of Ming Dynasty". Faced with theory of difference between Hua and barbarians at that time, Yongzheng wrote famous "Da Yi Jue Mi Lu" in which he wrote: "Since ancient times, China has been united and its territory cannot be vast. those who do not want to be reformed, they will be condemned as barbarians... ...I ruled middle earth, ruled world, and all tribes on far side of Mongolia belonged to territory. This is expansion of territory of China and great fortune of Chinese subjects. How can there be a difference between Huayi, Chinese, and foreigners!" Yongzheng thought that so-called barbarians were nothing more than a denigration of backward nationalities, but in fact, all these nationalities belong to China.
Daiyi Jue Milu: A Buried Eternal Book
This concept of Yongzheng Emperor became basis of later Chinese national concept. During reign of Qianlong Emperor, it was clearly stated that "it is a certain principle for a husband to praise imperial court in front of people from afar, or call it Heavenly Dynasty, or call it China." The dynasties also excluded ethnic groups other than themselves, but instead established a large "one family under heaven" system that included all of China's major ethnic groups. Due to rulings of Qing Emperor, by middle of Qing Dynasty, ordinary people in empire began to call their country "China".
QianlongIII. China under invasion of great powers: from expulsion of Tatars to republic of five races
After 1840, Western powers began to invade China, and China began to face major changes not seen in three thousand years. Can various ethnic groups in China still have disputes between you and me under such circumstances? At this time, whether they are Han, Manchu, or Mongolian people, they should all unite and unite with outside world. At present, there is a difference between China, West and East. In 1901, Liang Qichao proposed concept of Chinese nation and divided history of Chinese nation into three eras: pre-Qin era, era of self-development, self-competition and self-unification of Chinese nation. , Han Dynasty to beginning of Qing Dynasty, China and Asian era The era of competition and exchange, since end of Qing Dynasty, China and other Asian countries have jointly fought against western colonial invasion. In 1902, Liang Qichao changed Chinese nation to Chinese nation, noting that China's national concept had entered a new stage.
However, in order to overthrow rule of Qing Dynasty, people at that time still used past distinction between hua and barbarians for propaganda. During Sino-Japanese War, Japan tried to destroy China from within, so it released "Letter to Heroes of Eighteen Provinces" in China. By claiming that "China" was destroyed by Manchuria, they tried to create conflicts between Chinese nationalities. In addition, Japan also distributed long-lost books in China, such as The Ten Diaries of Yangzhou, to stir up ethnic hatred in China. Later, after research by scholars, it was suggested that Ten Diaries of Yangzhou from Japan was most likely a fake book. However, it had a huge impact on revolutionary party after Sino-Japanese War.
In 1905, Tongmenghui was formed, headed by Sun Yat-sen and others, and Sun Yat-sen proposed "to expel Tatars and restore China." This slogan is similar to that of Zhu Yuanzhang at that time. Obviously, overthrow of Qing Dynasty is in line with China's development trend, and expulsion of Qing Dynasty from China is narrow view of nation and is not in line with China's fundamental interests. On October 10, 1911, Wuchang uprising ended in victory, and power of Qing dynasty collapsed. At this time, Western powers were trying to dismember China, for example, Japan proposed "dividing Manchus and Hans into North and South." Sino-Tibetan conflicts in an attempt to make Tibet independent.
In such a crisis situation, Sun Yat-sen immediately changed his position. He proposed that "all Mongols, Tibetans and Qinghais oppressed here now constitute bulk of country, and all can be masters of republic, i.e., they all have right to participate in state." The five main races of Mongolian, Tibetan and Hui should be equal where there is no peace and maintain unity of China. Sun Yat-sen further advanced remarks about "a republic of five ethnic groups" and "a family of five ethnic groups". At end of 1911, Sun Yat-sen and Yuan Shikai negotiated and both sides reached "Terms for Treatment of Manchus, Mongols, Hui and Tibetans", which made idea of a "Republic of Five Ethnic Groups" an accord between north and south. In 1912, when Republic of China was formed, Sun Yat-sen issued a declaration: "Unify Han, Manchu, Mongolian, Hui and Tibetan regions into one country, that is, unite Han, Manchu, Mongolian, Hui and Tibetan ethnic groups into one person, which is called nation of "unity".
The Republic of Five Ethnic Groups became a very emphasized slogan during Republic of China
In February 1912, Qing emperor announced his abdication. The "Edict of Abdication of Qing Emperor" clearly refers to "Republic of Five Ethnic Groups". The original text "yet entire territory of five ethnic groups of Manchu, Han, Mongols, Hui, and Tibetans constitutes one Greater Republic of China." The promulgation of "Edict of Abdication of Qing Emperor" allowed Republic of China to legally inherit territory of Qing Dynasty, which prevented plot of Western powers to disintegrate China. In next few decades, although China's national strength is weak, Western powers will not be able to occupy China's legitimate territory at will. From "exile of Tatars" to "republic of five ethnic groups", it reflects profound changes in China's national and national concepts and is more in line with China's fundamental interests.
The Qing emperor's abdication