In previous article, editor presented historical maps of China drawn by Japan and Korea, as well as areas of Qing Dynasty drawn by other countries. Today, editor will present a historical map of China in an American history textbook. Most of maps in this historical atlas are very different from those in Chinese high school history textbooks: most of drawings are small and some are large.
Map of early civilizations of world
There are rumors on Internet that Western countries do not recognize Xia Dynasty, which is actually a rumor. In a history textbook for sixth graders in United States, there is such a map of China for Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties. Among them, Xia dynasty is green part, and its scale is probably located in border area from Henan to Shandong and Hebei. The scope of Xia Dynasty in picture is even larger than Xia Dynasty in Chinese textbooks. The Shang Dynasty sphere is blue part, while Zhou Dynasty is larger and is inside brown. The map of Xia, Shang and Zhou in American textbooks is still very good.
Map of Xia, Shang and Zhou
American textbooks represent China before unification of Qin Dynasty, and such a map appears in text. This map is from late Warring States period: State of Qin occupied Bashu, State of Yan discovered Liaodong, State of Zhao annexed States of Zhongshan, Lufan, Linhu, etc., and State of Chu annexed State of Yue. Among seven heroes of Warring States Period were small states such as Zhou, Song, and Lu. The map also has original map of China. Generally speaking, there is nothing wrong with Warring States map in American textbooks.
Map of Warring States Period
There is a huge gap between Qin Dynasty map in American textbooks and mainstream Chinese versions. In this map drawn by United States, Qin Dynasty did not rule Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangxi, and Jiaozhi (northern Vietnam). In fact, Jiangxi was included in Qin Dynasty's sphere of influence after Chu was destroyed and some counties were created, such as Yuzhang County. After that, they conquered Baiyue in south, founded Minzhong County in Fujian (Donggou), founded Nanhai County in Guangdong (South Vietnam), founded Guilin County in Guangxi (Siou), and established Xiangjun in Jiaozhi (Luoyue). We can say that this map does not correspond to real situation of Qin Dynasty.
There are two main problems with Han Dynasty maps in American textbooks. Fujian is one of them. Although Han Dynasty did not create a separate district here, it was under jurisdiction of Kuaiji district. The second is Hainan. Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty created counties of Zhuya and Dan'er on island of Hainan after destruction of Nanyue and for first time incorporated Hainan into Chinese territory. The year marked on map is 87 BC, at which time counties of Ruya and Danier had not yet been withdrawn. Of course, there are more than two problems. In north of Vietnam, there is only Jiaozhi County, and there are no Rinan County and Xianglin County. The southernmost part of Han Dynasty reached central part of Vietnam.
As for Tang Dynasty map, two colors are used in American textbooks. The dark color represents area of administrative jurisdiction of Tang Dynasty, while light color part represents sphere of influence of Tang Dynasty. Of course, this method of painting in itself is not a problem, problem lies in area of impact. During heyday of Tang Dynasty, sphere of influence was from Aral Sea in west, Lake Baikal in north and North Korea in east, this is not a problem. However, Tubo never entered sphere of influence of Tang dynasty, and United States brought Tubo into sphere of influence, which is clearly wrong. Also, although state of Nanzhao is in southwest, Guizhou (Qianzhong Road) is still under jurisdiction of Tang Dynasty. The painting does not draw Guizhou into Tang dynasty, which is clearly incorrect.
Map of Tang Dynasty
Compared to maps drawn in China, maps of confrontation between Song and Jin in US clearly ignore Sixia, Dali, etc., with Song and Jin being main characters. As for map of Southern Song dynasty, there are no particular problems, but map of Jin kingdom is different. The Jin Kingdom originated in Heilongjiang River basin, and its control over Heilongjiang River basin is very strong. In picture, Jin Kingdom has not yet reached Heilongjiang River, so problem is obvious.
Map of Mongol Empire from an American textbook. The time of map is 1294. You should know that this year Mongol Empire was divided. The distribution of China should be Yuan Dynasty, and there are also four major khanates. It is better to name map Yuan Dynasty and map of Four Great Khanates. As far as Yuan Dynasty is concerned, it clearly does not fit with history that northeast reached Heilongjiang. The Yuan dynasty once built Marshal Zhengdong's mansion in Tlin at mouth of Heilongjiang River, indicating that entire Heilongjiang River basin was controlled by Yuan dynasty. Of course, there are also several territories in territory of Mongol Empire in American textbooks, and there are also more reasonable territories. However, none of these territories were part of Ali dynasty and Guge dynasty.
The territory of Ming Dynasty has always been a hot topic. The territory of Ming Dynasty, drawn by United States in 1424, is territory of peak period of Ming Dynasty, and does not include Mongolia and Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. I agree with this point. There are also Nuerganduxi and Commander-in-Chief Jiaozhi in picture, but Nuerganduxi's jurisdiction only covers eastern part of northeast, I don't know on what basis. According to historical records, Nuerganduxi area "borders sea to east, Wuliangkhoi to west, North Korea to south, and Nuergang Beihai to north", indicating that it must include entire northeast.
Map of Peak Period of Ming Dynasty
Study map of United States during Qing Dynasty, 1760. During this period, Qing dynasty eliminated Dzungar Khanate and united East Asian continent. In principle, there is no difference between a US map and a China map. The only difference is that North Korea is included in Qing Dynasty Map compiled by United States, which shows that Americans believe that North Korea's sovereignty belongs to Qing Dynasty. In this regard, I think United States has drawn quite well. However, United States did not include Ladakh in Qing Dynasty, which is disputed.
Qing DynastyRecommended reading
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