Modern History tells how last four centuries changed conditions of life and thought in Middle Ages. By comparison, Middle Ages was a realm of stability, continuity and instinctive evolution rarely considered by Gregory VII. > strongly>or such founders of Assisi killed.
They do not know history, allowing unknown past to dominate them. They do not understand science and never believe in hidden forces working for a happier future. In them, feeling of rotting seems less with each generation than with previous one.
In ancient wisdom and virtues of their ancestors, they find solace in belief that end of world is near. However, most impressive reason for change in society is medieval legacy.
At end of thirteenth century psychology was first studied in detail, and people began to say that this is audible voice of God, infallible, which should always be obeyed, whether enlightened or Dark, right or wrong.
This concept is allegedly limited by objection that ecclesiastical authority is equated with certain heresies. This oppresses public and secret watchdogs under visible authority. As coercion eases, demands on conscience increase, and the lands left behind by inquisitors are taken by individuals.
There is more exuberant independent character growth and conscious control over character formation. The knowledge of good and evil is not an exclusive or exalted privilege bestowed on nations, nations, or majority.
When it is defined as a sacred thing in human nature, it limits power, allowing voice of sovereignty to be heard rather than expressed will and established customs of others.
According to this assumption, the soul becomes holier than state because it receives light from above, and also because its concerns are eternal and completely out of proportion to general good of government.
This is root of freedom to develop conscience, and it is necessary for other freedoms that limit sphere of power so that it does not challenge human superiority.
Securities trying to achieve this have been problem of all subsequent history, and it took centuries to identify and create them. If main direction is upward, action is sluggish, and if conflict is intense, balance is often unstable.
The passion for power over others will never cease to threaten humanity and will always find new and unexpected allies in martyrdom.
Therefore, modern method of progress is revolution. Through a series of violent attacks, countries work one after other to shed past, time-changing actions and successful judgments, and save world from domination of dead. They arise not so much from provocation of a real error as from an appeal to ideal rights that inspire their claim to universality.
Progress brings society more and more victims. Representing those who cannot reciprocate, who do not benefit equally from their well-being, whose existence is a burden, an evil and , ultimately a danger to society.
Life expectancy, an improved short test, by which all the main forces of civilization, moral and material, religious and scientific, work together and depend on disabled children, at an infinite cost. accident victims, idiots and lunatics, poor and criminals, old and infirm, curable and incurable.
This growing predominance of selfless motives, this freedom in public life for weak, which corresponds to respect for few in political life, is essence of freedom. It is application of same principle of self-denial and higher laws.
We have long been witnessing morality progress over material influence, triumph of thought in general, gradual correction. In general, this line will demonstrate, from strength and cruelty to unity and association, to humanity, rational persuasion and constant reference to a common, simple and obvious rule.
We have abolished necessity in form of hunger and fear, expanding scene from Western Europe to whole world, for everyone to contribute to treasures of civilization, and enjoying its rewards and forming Underground partnerships.
We will focus on many things that have failed and disappeared, as well as progress that is helping us build world we live in. For history must be our savior, not only from excessive influence of other epochs, but also from our own, from tyranny of circumstance and pressure of air we breathe.
He calls upon all historical forces to create their own records and submit to judgment, and also encourages resistance to modern circumstances through exposure to other eras and other schools of thought.
In more recent times, differences of an international character have obviously been subject to a constant process of adaptation and adjustment and have been subject to similar influences.
People of all nations are guided by same interests, they are obsessed with same problems, they are excited by same emotions, their writings are interchangeable, their scientific authorities are almost same, and they are easy to combine for experimentation and research.
By 1500 European states had reached a point of complete differentiation, formed and composed of simple elements, in millennium between fall of Roman Empire and fall of its eastern successors. They are alienated from each other and tend to view foreigners as enemies.
Old ties have weakened, and The Pope is no longer a recognized peacemaker. The idea of an international code of laws over will of state and power of monarch has not yet appeared in philosophy.
Between old order that is changing and new order that is yet to be born, Europe needs to bridge inorganic gap.
Modern history begins under pressure of Ottoman conquest. The Constantinople unites Greek and Latin churches after attempting to negotiate help.
When agreement reached in Florence was not ratified at home, attempt was met with hatred and led to such outbursts that even conquest of Turks seemed to be tolerable for time being, and an accelerated disaster and made Western Christians hesitate to sacrifice themselves for their stubborn brothers in East.
Subject to acceptance of Edict of Florence, an offer of assistance is made, but rejected out of patriotism and theological disdain. A small detachment of Pope and Genoese mercenaries shared fate of defenders, and even if religious unity were restored, denouement could not be avoided for long.
Retreating great powers are not bound solely by dogmatic arguments. Fear of Latin intolerance was most favorable situation Turks faced in Eastern Empire, and they immediately offered protection and immunity to patriarchs and their bishops.
The conquest of entire peninsula, including islands, took a generation, and at same time, it was good policy not to do anything that would diminish advantage or cause persecution anxiety.
Praetorians were selected from among sons of Christian parents who became traitors, who had no home, no family, no life, but camps, no work, only weapons. Not only have they become best professional soldiers in world, but they have always been an active force capable of nullifying work of Pacific statesmen and finding new opportunities for warfare.
Random outbursts of blind rage, when savage race could not understand characters and interests of more educated aliens than themselves. But at first there is not that direct feeling of tyranny, so little contrast with life under rule of Italian tyrant, that Christians under rule of Sultan desperately yearn for relief.
From perjury at Varna in 1446, when Christians violated treaty just made in Sregadina, it became known that they could never be trusted to remain engaged to someone from another religion.
It seems hypocritical weakness not to prey on a people so divided, filled with hatred, unable to unite to protect their altars and homes, and so eager to seek help and intervention from heretics to resolve their own disputes and exaggerations.
Several surrounding principalities, Serbia, Bosnia, Wallachia, Morea are respectively affected by Attack, without joint defense, what they need to face is extremely violent attack of enemy.
In Epirus Skanderbeg, once a traitor, was in communion with Rome when sunrise could be seen from Watcher at Cape Lingetta, He carried supplies across river. coast from Puglia. For many years he held on victoriously, knowing that his country would perish with him, and this end was all more facilitated by acts of non-resistance until they perished together.
John Hanyard defended Christendom on Hungarian frontier so well that his son's monarchy held back waves of invasion for seventy years.
While Turkish outposts stood guard on Danube, Mohammed brought Otranto to Alps, and no force could resist him. That's when he died, got lost in Otranto and put an end to his career.
Otranto is a country of soldiers, not a country of sailors. For off-sea operations, they relied on Echai's usually Christian sailors. Because they needed help of Genoese ships to get them to Hellespont.
Under successor of Bayazit Europe rested a bit. His brother is a dangerous competitor. The crown goes to those who survived. Fleeing from Christians, he was taken hostage by Knights of St. John and Pope. However, this exceeded ransom that could be paid, and in end sultan paid and silenced him.
For many years, Turks have been busy in East. Selim conquered Syria and part of Persia, while he conquered Arabia and was recognized as Caliph Sheriff of Mecca and Protector of Holy Land. He conquered Egypt and received privileges of Immaum,which also made power of Turks a general hype in then global environment.
Imaum, once a shadow in Cairo, became supreme authority of Islam in Constantinople. Having collected resources concentrated in Levant, Suleiman finally turned against enemies guarding gates of civilized Europe.
After capture of Belgrade in 1526, he participated in one of most important campaigns in Turkish history. At Battle of Mohács, Hungary lost her independence and suffered a complete defeat, and this kind of defeat was clearly not result that he could endure. The failure brought not only robbery, but also groaning of subjects.
The Turks have found a Transylvanian nobleman ready to take crown from them. The wide valley of Danube was their battlefield until days of Sobieski and Eugene. But legitimate heir of King Ladislas, who fell from Mohács, was the only brother of Charles V Ferdinand.
Hungary, a vast region that at that time belonged to royal family of Bohemia, passed into same hands with ancient heritage of Habsburgs, forming an undersea world extending to Austrian monarchy on Sarmatian plain.
The Turks were repulsed at Vienna in 1529 and at Vienna, Malta in 1564. This is their limit in Western Europe. After 1571 Lepanto, their only expansion was at expense of Moscow Poland. The Turks, having almost conquered more and more neighboring countries, gradually fell silent, and more and more powerful countries hampered their development.
But Turks are still squandering their almost unlimited resources. The entire coast from Cattaro to Oxen River and Atlantic Ocean belongs to Magodans. All but one-quarter of Mediterranean is Turkish Lakes. Only much later did they realize that they were not destined to be masters of Western world and Eastern world.
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