Many people don't know that today's Tyva Republic of Russian Federation, Altai Republic, Altai Territory, south of Kemerovo Oblast, and part of Republic of Khakassia were once a territory of Qing Dynasty in China called Tannu. Ulyansky ocean. While we are talking about China's territorial issues, we should mention Russia. Russia single-handedly made China lose more than 3 million square kilometers of land, and Tangnu Wulianghai is just one of them.
Tangnu Wulianghai covers an area of 400,000 square kilometers, which is equivalent to area of Yunnan Province. In ancient times, this area mainly belonged to area of residence of nomadic peoples of Mobey. In Han Dynasty there were Huns, in Wei and Jin dynasties there were Xianbei, in Sui and Tang dynasties there were Turks, Te Le, Huihe and Miajiashi. During Song Dynasty, it belonged to Liao Kingdom and Western Liao Dynasty. In 1206, Mongol Khanate was founded. In second year, Shuchi moved north towards "common people in forest", and Tubasi people in Tannu Wulyankhai region were convinced. During Yuan Dynasty, it belonged to Lingbei Province. During Ming Dynasty, it belonged to Mongol tribe Mosi (Oirat, Vala), later it was captured by Monan Mongol, and then belonged to Khalkha Mongolia.
At beginning of Qing Dynasty, Hetuohuite and other ministries operated in Tangnu Wulianghai area, which belonged to Cargo. In 1655, whole of Khalkha Mongolia accepted canonization of Qing dynasty, as did Hetuohueit ministry. In 1688, Dzungar Khanate united Khalkha Mongolia. After that, Emperor Kangxi of Qing Dynasty conquered Galdan three times, and Galdan eventually betrayed his relatives and committed suicide by ingesting poison. In 1691, Mongolian Ministry of Khalkha was included in territory of Qing Dynasty, and Tangnu Wulianghai was also included in territory of Qing Dynasty. At this time, Russia also tried to penetrate Khalkha. In 1727, Yongzheng Emperor signed "Blensky Border Treaty" with Russia, and two countries marked border line with Kyakhta as a border. Among them, Khalkha belonged to Qing Dynasty, and Buryatia belonged to Russia.
However, border around Tannu Ulyan Sea has not yet been established, and Russia is also using opportunity to expand in area. In 1756, department of Hetuo Huite in Tangnu region of Wulianghai raised an uprising, which was crushed following year. Since then, Qing Dynasty has strengthened its control over Tannu Wulianghai territory. Its main measures include: creation of four banners of Tannu, Sarajik, Tuojin and Kuvsgul, direct control of tax power in hands of Qing officials. power of Mongol princes to levy fees on behalf of princes; promulgated "Mongolian Laws" and "Regulations of Li Fanyuan" to unify laws; clarified administrative division, carried out registration of households and counting of households; surveyed border, set up Karen, Garrison troops, etc. For first time in history, effective control and administrative management of this place was carried out.
However, Russia still does not refuse to invade here. In 1860, Russia forced Qing Dynasty to sign "Peking Treaty", forcibly specifying direction of western border between China and Russia. demarcation, creating a treaty basis for occupation of more Chinese territory; in 1864, Qing dynasty was forced to sign "Reports on exploration of northwestern frontier", occupying northwestern territory of Tangnu Wulianghai (now Republic of Altai). In 1869, Qing dynasty was forced to sign “Uliasutai Border Treaty”, which originally belonged to Uri 40,000 square kilometers of high-quality pastures in northwest of Tannu Ulianghai, under jurisdiction of General Yasutai, were transferred to Russia, the general's jurisdiction was overseen by Wulianghai Teng Zuo.
After that, Russia actively penetrated into area south of Sayan Mountains. By 1912, there were 80 industrial, commercial and mining enterprises in Russia in Tannu Ulyanhai region, 166 residential areas and more than 5,000 immigrants, some officials were even created, churches and schools were opened. In 1912, Republic of China was established and Russia created Mongolian crisis and at same time drove out domestic entrepreneurs in Tangnu area of Wulianghai. In February of that year, with support of Russia, Gonpo Dorji, deputy capital of Banner Tangnu, declared "independence". However, Sarajik and Tuojin Banner's subordinates strongly opposed this, and most of them supported Kaerge's call of Jebtsundamba Mongol group and joined independent Outer Mongolian army. This plan disrupted Tsarist Russia's plan to annex Tannu Wulianghai and therefore prevented it from being "independent".
In 1913, Russia immigrated en masse to Tangna Wulianghai. In 1914, troops were sent to carry out "protection". This place was actually occupied by Tsarist Russia. In 1916, conflict between Mongols and Russia in Tannu Wulianghai region escalated, and head of Kemuzik Banner sent someone to ask for help from Republic of China. In 1917, a revolution broke out in Russia, so Republic of China seized opportunity to reclaim Outer Mongolia. In 1918, Chen Yi, assistant commissioner stationed in Wuliasutai, and Yang Shichao, general secretary of Grand Commissioner's Office in Kulun, split into two groups and finally took back Tangna Wulianghai.
But after creation of Soviet Russia, they again came to seize lands of China. In winter of 1919, territory north of Sayan Mountains was under control of Soviet Russia. In 1921, Soviet Russian Red Army entered Tangna Wulianghai and Chinese soldiers, civilians and officials were mostly massacred, with Soviet Russia taking over place. At end of same year, Soviet Russia declared Tanna Wulianghai "independent" and became Republic of Tuva. Although it was nominally independent, it was actually controlled by Soviet Union. In 1930, Soviet Union ruled that Tangnu Wulianghai could not use Mongolian language. In 1944, Stalin directly annexed the Tuva Republic.
The Republic of China protested many times after end of World War II, but it was clearly weak. Before collapse of Soviet Union in 1991, Tuva Republic again declared independence. However, without support of international forces, Tuva soon became part of Russian Federation.
I always feel sad thinking about loss of Tang Nu Wu Liang Hai. Here, China has lost many opportunities to recover. Taiwanese poet Xi Murong wrote in poem "Tangnu Wulianghai":
Far above sea / Quietly lying on a plateau / A lake as clear as a chrysanthemum / Under Sayan Mountains our lost ancient lake Kusu / Gold and silver taken by others / We will call to take it back / The horse that was taken by others / We will ride on a faster horse / Go and snatch her back / Tangnu Wulianghai who was easily taken by others / Why never listen Tell me which descendant ever shed a tear for her?