In 1280, calendar was completed, and Kublai Khan called it "Shushi Calendar". The Shushi calendar was most perfect calendar in world at that time. This calendar has been used in China for 300 years and is longest calendar in ancient China. "Great view of Song and Yuan culture" wrote: "As peak of development of traditional calendar in my ancient country, it is also end and recorded in annals of history." Based on traditional Chinese calendar, this calendar combines advantages of Arabic calendar and Tubo calendar and realizes integration.
The territory of Yuan Dynasty was vast, and geography was also developed. In 1280, Kublai Khan sent Jurchens to investigate source of Huang He, proving error that Huang He originated in Lob Nur, and for first time in history explored source of Huang He. During excavation of Huitong River, Guo Shoujing and other scholars of Yuan Dynasty took height measurements for first time in Chinese history. In 1299, Yuan Dynasty began to draw a national map and drew "Guangyu Jiangli Tu", which stretches from Heilongjiang in north to Hainan in south. This is first relatively complete national map in ancient China.
In terms of mathematics, Yuan Dynasty reached a new peak in Chinese classical mathematics. During Song and Yuan dynasties, famous “four masters of Song and Yuan dynasties”, namely Qin Jiushao, Li Ye, Yang Hui and Zhu Shijie, appeared in field of mathematics. With exception of Qin Jiushao, other three were from Yuan Dynasty. Among them, Zhu Shijie (1249-1314) had highest mathematical achievement. Based on Tianyuanshu in Jin Dynasty, he developed "quaternary technique" (quaternary polynomial equation of high degree) and elimination element solution method. He also created "stack product method" (a method of summing arithmetic series of high order) and "set method" (a method of high order interpolation) and is known as "the greatest mathematician of medieval world". At that time, China's mathematical achievements were far ahead of Europe.
In ancient China, there were two types of calculating instruments: counting chips and abacus, among which abacus appeared during Yuan Dynasty. Qian Daiying, a scholar from Qing Dynasty, based on study of texts, concluded that abacus appeared in middle of Yuan Dynasty and was widely used at end of Yuan Dynasty and beginning of Ming Dynasty.
With regard to agronomy, Kublai Khan attached great importance to agriculture. After establishment of Yuan Dynasty, he ordered officials throughout country to advise on farming and mulberry, and appointed Minister of Agriculture in charge of persuading farming and mulberry. The officials of Yuan Dynasty summarized agricultural production techniques of past dynasties, "searched out books of ancient and modern farmers" and compiled "Nonsang Collection", which is earliest official agricultural book in China and is also "ancient Chinese government. It is earliest comprehensive book on agriculture, guiding nation's agricultural production." After unification of Yuan Dynasty, Wang Zhen synthesized agronomy of Southern Song Dynasty and compiled "Nong Shu". For first time, he made a more comprehensive and systematic discussion of so-called broad sense of knowledge about agricultural production and proposed traditional system of Chinese agronomy.
As for medicine, Mongol Yuan Empire has always attached great importance to it and created special medical farms and medicine. At that time, many of classical medical documents of Arab region, including "Medical Code" written by Arab physician Ibn Sina, were presented in China. Converting traditional Chinese medicine from decoction to pills, powders, ointments, pills and other dosage forms. The Yuan Dynasty divided medicine into thirteen subjects, which were more advanced than nine subjects in Song Dynasty and ten subjects in Jin Dynasty. In 25th year of Yuan Dynasty, Materia Medica was compiled.
During Jin and Yuan dynasties, four major medical experts emerged, collectively known as Four Masters of Jin and Yuan dynasties. Among them is Zhu Zhenheng (1281–1358), a descendant of Yuan Dynasty. Known as "Master of Medicine". Huihui medicine was also introduced to mainland. Hu Xihui, at that time a Hui, wrote "Drinking Food", which is first complete book on food hygiene and diet therapy in China. In addition, Dou Mo is also a renowned medical scientist and one of renowned experts on history of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, which has had a profound impact on later generations.
Handicraft technology also developed during Yuan Dynasty. In field of textile industry, Huang Daopo learned and improved cotton textile technology of Li nationality in Hainan, which led to growth of cotton textile, and Jiangnan became center of China's textile industry. In terms of printing, Wang Zhen improved wooden movable type, successfully avoided many shortcomings of movable type printing during Song Dynasty, and greatly contributed to development of printing industry. Wang Zhen also created a wheel-shaped storage plate that could rotate freely, which increased speed of movable type printing. Chromatic printing appeared during Yuan Dynasty, 170 years before Europe. In terms of porcelain, Yuan Dynasty absorbed Arabic ceramic technology and fired blue and white porcelain based on Chinese tradition; in terms of brewing, distillation technology emerged, so liquor began to enter stage of history.
In terms of weapon production, Yuan Dynasty's heavy trebuchets were developed, and powerful returnable guns were brought from Arabia. As for gunpowder, gunpowder weapons of Southern Song Dynasty were relatively primitive and had a limited lethality . Inherited and developed by Yuan Dynasty, gunpowder weapons of Jin kingdom appeared and world's earliest artillery, copper gunshot blunderbuss. The Classical Fire Dragon of Yuan Dynasty is also first book in China to describe anti-personnel mines.
Summarizing, science and technology of Yuan Dynasty was very advanced, and it can be said that it was last era when China was ahead of world. Under Ming Dynasty, Western countries emerged from Renaissance and technological revolution, and Copernicus, Bruno, Cardano, Regmontan, Vesalius, Servetus, Kepler, Descartes, Fei Ma, Harvey and other scientists gave birth to modern science. However, due to years of maritime prohibition under Ming Dynasty, China began to lag behind global trend.