The latest high school history textbook is a general history textbook edited by Ministry, which in many ways takes on new perspectives and new academic achievements. The history of Ming Dynasty has always been one of most interesting parts for Chinese. In textbooks compiled by Ministry, history of Ming Dynasty is included in fourth section of mandatory section "The Creation of Chinese Territory under Ming and Qing Dynasties and Challenges It Faced". Texts related to Ming dynasty include: Lesson 13 "From Founding of Ming Dynasty to Unification of Qing Dynasty" and Lesson 15 "The Economy and Culture of Ming and Qing Dynasties." And now a little introduction for you.1. Founding of Ming dynasty and its political system
Lesson 14 mainly introduces politics of Ming Dynasty, including three subtitles: "Changes in Political System of Ming Dynasty", "Marine Traffic and Coastal Situation", "Inland Borders and Change of Ming and Qing Dynasties". . In "Changes in Political System of Ming Dynasty", first paragraph talks about peasant uprising at end of Yuan Dynasty and establishment of Ming Dynasty. The second paragraph begins to introduce changes in political system of Ming Dynasty. It mentioned that Zhu Yuanzhang's character is "suspicious, headstrong, obsessed with power, and has to do everything himself." He abolished prime ministerial system. "This move had a profound effect on the political system for over 500 years."
The third paragraph talks about establishment of cabinet system in Ming Dynasty. The fourth paragraph mainly raises issue of eunuch's monopoly. Because eunuchs in courtyard had right to act as an agent to "favor color red", it was easier for eunuchs to control cabinet. It states: "Comparatively speaking, eunuchs have more confidence in emperor than in cabinet, so that a situation of eunuch monopoly arises." At end of Ming Dynasty, eunuchs appeared, represented by Wei Zhongxian. In fact, abolition of prime ministers, creation of cabinets and dictatorship of eunuchs are all manifestations of an increase in despotism.
The Ming Dynasty foreign currencies are presented in "Sea Traffic and Coastal Situation" section. The first paragraph is about Zheng He's journey to West. The assessment of this issue in book is very appropriate: “Zheng He's voyage to western seas is an ocean voyage of unprecedented scale in world history, far ahead of European ocean navigators half a century later in capital. , equipment and technologies. However, its main purpose was to "bring troops to foreign lands and show prosperity of China", which placed a great financial burden on Ming dynasty, so it could not be supported later. ”
The second paragraph is about Japanese pirates. Japanese pirates were originally Japanese pirates who started appearing during Yuan Dynasty. But in middle of Ming Dynasty, character of Japanese pirates changed. The book said, “In order to impose an economic blockade on Japan, imperial court strictly prohibited foreign trade. As a result, private maritime smuggling in southeast was rampant, mixed with Japanese pirates harassing coast. , burned, killed and plundered, causing great damage. strong>" This means that Japanese pirates are mainly composed of residents of southeast China, and main reason for their appearance is policy of prohibiting sea. In last sentence, it was mentioned, that Qi Jiguang suppressed "rebellion of Japanese pirates".
The third paragraph talks about arrival of western colonists. With opening of a new sea route, aggressive forces of Portugal, Spain and Netherlands approached southeastern coast of China. Portugal "bribed magistrate of Xiangshan County to obtain tenancy rights in Haojinggao (Macau)." Thereafter, Spain and Netherlands successively occupied Taiwan. There is a text in "Historical Reading Materials" that reports that Western weapons are ahead of Ming Dynasty. All this shows that during Ming Dynasty, China began to lag behind global trend.2. Internal borders and change of Ming and Qing dynasties
People pay more attention to territorial issues of Ming Dynasty, so editor introduced third title of Lesson 14 in some detail. Since Ming Dynasty overthrew Yuan Dynasty established by Mongolia, first paragraph describes relationship between Ming Dynasty and Mongolia. The original text of book states following: “After fall of Yuan dynasty, Mongols in pastures gradually formed two groups, Tatars and Oala. To protect against them going south, Ming Dynasty rebuilt Great Wall. In middle of Ming Dynasty, Oirats and Tatars continued to threaten Ming Dynasty. The Northern Frontier Defense broke through Great Wall twice to go inland and encircle Beijing. Wala also captured Ming Yingzong in battle. In 1571, Tatar leader Altan Khan concluded a peace treaty with Ming dynasty and accepted canonization of Ming dynasty. Both sides resumed and expanded trade relations, until end of Ming Dynasty, situation was mostly peaceful.
The article does not mention that Mongolia belonged to Ming Dynasty, but only talks about relationship between two sides from war to peace. The methodological materials pay more attention to unity between ethnic groups, so they focus on joining world. The History section presents status of tribute trade between Ming Dynasty and Mongolia. Among them, Alta Mutual Market stands out: “After Alta Khan concluded a peace agreement with Ming Dynasty, he not only resumed regular tribute relations, but also opened a mutual market in Datong and other border cities. The big market - once a year, and small market - once a month. Farmers and pastoralists inside and outside Great Wall can come and trade freely. This agreement greatly contributed to development of peaceful and friendly relations between Mongolian and Han peoples."
Regarding relationship between Ming Dynasty and Tibetans, article is very brief, just one sentence. “During Ming Dynasty, Tibetan areas were called Wuxi Zang. The Ming court bestowed titles such as "Dharma King" and "King" on local monks and lay leaders, and established institutions such as Xuanwei Division and Marshal's Office, and appointed Tibetan supreme rulers. level of people to serve." While this basic view of Tang Qixiang is upheld, it has been suggested that this is a kind of "confession".
Regarding relationship between Ming Dynasty and Jurchen clan, article uses two paragraphs. The first paragraph introduces Jurchen tribe before fall of Ming Dynasty. “At beginning of Ming Dynasty, people were sent to northeast to pacify, and a Nuer Gandu division was established in Heilongjiang River basin, and official titles were widely adopted for leaders of Jurchen tribes in northeast. Nurhati, leader of Jurchen tribe Jianzhou, gradually united various ministries of Jurchens, in 1616, Huang's son Taiji proclaimed himself emperor in Shengjing, changed country to "Great Qing" and handed it over to Jurchens. The name was changed to Manchuria. Later, Nurhaci and Huang Taiji were revered as Qing Taizu and Qing Taizong, respectively.
"Records of Emperor Taizu of Qing Dynasty"
The second paragraph introduces introduction of Qing Dynasty. “During rise of Qing Dynasty, Ming Dynasty was politically obscure, natural disasters prevailed, peasant uprisings arose, and power was collapsing. In 1644, Li Zicheng, leader of peasant army, established Dashun regime in Xi'. an, and then captured Beijing. Ming Xizong hanged himself, and Ming dynasty perished. The regent of Qing Dynasty Dorgon led an army to Shanhaiguan, defeated Li Zicheng, occupied and moved capital to Beijing. After more than 20 years of fierce fighting, Qing army defeated remaining peasant army and remnants of Ming Dynasty in south one by one and established its power throughout country.3. Economy and culture of Ming Dynasty
An Introduction to Ming Economics and Culture appears in Lesson 15, The Economy and Culture of Ming and Qing, which is divided into four parts: Economic Development and Restrictions, Changes in Thought, Novels and Operas, and " Science and Technology". From an economic perspective, section reports that since opening of new sea route, high-yield crops such as corn and sweet potatoes have been introduced to China, boosting grain production. At same time, agriculture was gradually commercialized, and cash crops were widely grown. The second paragraph introduces achievements of handicraft industry. In some areas in south of Yangtze River, handicraft workshops and labor relations have appeared. However, there is no such thing as "emergence of capitalism" in article, and introduction of "emergence of capitalism" in "Historical Reading" section is only opinion of some scholars. The third paragraph introduces development of commerce, such as influx of silver, which became main currency in circulation, trade over long distances, emergence of merchant gangs, etc.
However, last paragraph highlights shortcomings of Ming and Qing economies. “However, from point of view of entire society, self-sufficient traditional small-scale farming, where men farm and women weave, still has an overwhelming advantage. Increasingly rigid autocratic rule also suppresses and hinders social progress. and transformation. Just like Western countries are making great strides. Entering modern industrial civilization, Chinese society was still stagnant, laying foundation for falling behind and defeat".
The second heading introduces idea. The first paragraph introduces philosophy of mind of Wang Yangming and thoughts of Li Zhi, which played a role in liberation of mind in late Ming Dynasty. The second paragraph presents thoughts of Huang Zongxi, Gu Yanwu and Wang Fuzhi, who mainly criticize autocratic system of Song and Ming dynasties and system of emphasis on agriculture and suppression of business. In "Research and Expansion" section at end of Lesson 14, there is a wonderful critique of Huang Zongxi on Zhu Yuanzhang's removal of the prime minister.
The prosperity of civil literature is presented in chapter "Fiction and Opera". The emergence of civil literature is closely connected with development of commodity economy. It is mentioned that "Water Gorge" and "Romance of Three Kingdoms" are novels summarized based on Song and Yuan scripts, while "Journey to West" and "Scholars" are masterpieces of mythological novels and satirical novels. The Dream of Red Mansions of Qing Dynasty is pinnacle of ancient Chinese romance. It should be noted that "since late Ming Dynasty, merchants, artisans, townspeople, and common women often became protagonists of novels." liberation of mind. In terms of opera, Kunqu Opera and Peking Opera were presented by Tang Xianzu of Ming Dynasty and Kong Shangren of Qing Dynasty.
With regard to science and technology, it is mentioned that during Ming and Qing dynasties, several final works appeared, such as Compendium of Materia Medica, Tiangong Kaiwu, Nongzheng Quanshu, Xu Xiake's Travel Notes. etc., as well as a collection of large-scale classical works of Ming and Qing dynasties, such as "Yongle Dadian" and "Siku Quanshu" are presented in "History Through All History". It should be noted that all these works are a generalization of past technical knowledge and have not created new areas, which is an important manifestation of stagnation of Chinese science and technology.
At same time, Western scientific knowledge began to spread, and "Eastern dissemination of Western knowledge" began. For example, when Matteo Ricci came to China to preach, he introduced Western scientific knowledge and knowledge of world geography. It is accompanied by world map "Kunyu Wanguo Quantu" (copy), drawn and published in China by Matteo Ricci, and noted below: "This map shows Chinese people general outline of world. This picture was branded as “heretics to confuse public”, and they also lashed out and said: “Direct deception is what eyes do not see, legs do not reach and there is nothing to listen to. It really is so-called artists painting ghosts!” “This actually shows backwardness of ideas and concepts of people during Ming Dynasty.
In general, introduction of Ming and Qing dynasties into new textbooks is more rational than in past. There is an acquaintance with achievements of Ming and Qing dynasties, and at same time, students are constantly compared with world, letting people know that we have lagged behind global trend. This topic is included in introduction to fourth section: “The Ming and Qing are last two dynasties in ancient China. After outbreak of Opium War, Qing Dynasty entered modern times. The Qing Dynasty mentioned in this section only refers to early and middle Qing Dynasty. In Ming and Qing Dynasty, authoritarian centralization increased unprecedentedly, unified multi-ethnic country became more stable, territory of modern China was gradually refined, and economy, culture, and international relations were new development. During this period, situation in world has undergone tremendous changes. After opening of new air routes, world gradually became united, Europe emerged from Middle Ages and began to enter into a capitalist society. A new industrial civilization has replaced traditional agricultural civilization, which has become a general trend in world. In China, due to limitations of traditional economic structure and autocratic system, development of productive forces is increasingly limited. Obstacles. The rulers were complacent and refused to expand foreign exchange, which further undermined China's chances of keeping up with world trends and laid foundation for China's underdevelopment and defeat in modern times."