In 1276, Hangzhou was captured and Southern Song Dynasty perished. However, remnants of Southern Song dynasty did not give up resistance and marched all way south of Yangtze River up to Yashan in Guangdong Province. One of them is Wen Tianxiang, during which such famous poems as "Crossing Yangtze River", "Crossing Lingdingyan" and "Jinling Post" were written. In 1278, Wen Tianxiang was defeated and captured in Haifeng, Guangdong Province, and following year he was escorted to Yuan Dadu (Beijing), where he was kept in prison for a long time, but never surrendered. In 1281, he wrote "Song of Righteous Qi" in prison, which became masterpiece of his masterpieces. This poem may reflect spirit of honesty of literati of Southern Song Dynasty and profound influence of neo-Confucianism at time.First, what is integrity
During Song Dynasty, Confucians introduced theories of Buddhism and Taoism into Confucianism and completed revival of Confucianism. Neo-Confucianism of Song Dynasty emphasized spirit of integrity in Confucianism. So-called honesty is simply noble character of man. Mencius once said, "Wealth and honor cannot be disordered, poverty and humiliation cannot be shaken, and strength cannot be subdued."
Yu is a prisoner sitting in an earthen room in Northern Courtyard. The room is eight feet wide and four feet deep. The single leaf is low and small, white space is short and narrow, dirty and dark. On this summer day, all kinds of atmospheres are in full swing: four episodes of rain, a floating bed, sometimes water vapor; When cornice is shaded and saved, it promotes inflammation and abuse, and sometimes it is fire; if warehouse is left to rot, and old and old are forced, then it is rice; or dirt, or mutilated corpses, or rotting rats, a bad smell mixed, sometimes it's a bad smell. Stacking is counting chi, and those who take it seriously are rarely serious. However, I was weak and looked at it, and it's been two years since I've been here, but luckily I've been fine and I almost need support. However, I don't know what to support? Mencius said, “I cultivate my awe-inspiring spirit well. He has seven spirits and I have one. If one against seven, what is my problem? Kuan Haoran is righteousness of heaven and earth, and this is song of righteousness. Preface to Song of Righteousness
Wen Tianxiang called this awe-inspiring spirit "righteousness." In preface, he reported that various kinds of water vapor, water vapor, solar gas, fire gas, human spirit, and rice gas were in prison at that time, and when they mixed together, they turned into a foul odor. "no dirt, no ruined corpses, no rotting rats." Wen Tianxiang believes that he has a noble spirit that can resist all unhealthy tendencies. Comparison is used here. The first sentence of poem describes "awe-inspiring spirit" by saying that he is onfills entire universe, can take various forms and appears only during a crisis.
Heaven and earth have righteousness mingled with diversity. The lower part is Heyue and upper part is a sun star. Yu Ren said Hao Ran, Pei Hu Sai Cang Ming. Huanglu must be Qingyi, Hanhe Tu Mingting. I will see you when season is bad and you will see them one by one.
On surface, honesty is a level of personal improvement, but in fact it is also closely related to nation. Since Confucianism is study of "self-development, family management, government and world peace", it has a strong sense of social responsibility. Mencius said: “If you are poor, you will be useful to yourself; if you are rich, you will benefit world.” At beginning of Northern Song Dynasty, Fang Zhongyan said in "Yueyang Tower" that "first worry about worldly concerns, and then enjoy worldly pleasures."
Confucianism emphasizes that there are two main objects of good of world, one is people and other is monarch, together they are country and country. It all develops from idea of loyalty to emperor. Although idea of loyalty to emperor has existed since ancient times, it has never been as strong as it was in Song Dynasty. The preface to Collection of Allegiance, written by Liu Linrui, Zhao Jingliang, and others, states: “For more than three hundred years of Song Dynasty, country was built on benevolence, scholars were built on poetry and books, and scholars were encouraged by honesty. It is wonderful to know that it is wonderful to kill your body and become beneficent. It is also beautiful to suffer accidents and die. There are those who died in ancestral temple, those who died in community, those who died in king, and those who died in city and closed border.” For example, after Jingkang change, "Faithful Minister Xishi died one by one".
The Southern Song Dynasty was destroyed by Yuan Dynasty, and many honest people also died, including Zhang Shijie, Lu Xiufu, and Wen Tianxiang. Zhang Shijie successively supported two emperors of Southern Song Dynasty, vowed not to surrender to Yuan Dynasty, and finally defeated Yashan and drowned at foot of Mount Pingzhang; Lu Xiufu carried Zhao Bing on his back to sea and died after Yashan's defeat; Wen Tianxiang refused to surrender after being captured and finally died peacefully.Secondly, getting to know characters of Song of Righteousness.
The fifth sentence of Zhengqi's song, "When there is a bad time, we will see each other, and we will see each other" is a sentence that links past and future. It mainly leads to those people in ancient history who still maintained their honesty in times of crisis and are undoubtedly Wen Tianxiang's role model. Here are some brief introductions about them.
Ying Qi Taishi Jane, Jin Donghu Peng. In Qin Zhang Liangzhu, at Han Su Wu Festival. He is General Yang's head and has Ji Shi's blood in him. This is Zhang Suiyang's tooth and Yan Chang's tongue. Or a Liaodong hat purifying Li Pingxue. Or be a teacher, ghosts and gods cry heroically. Or, to cross river, generously swallow Hu Jie. Or to hit thief, reverse vertical head is broken. He is majestic, ferocious and ferocious forever. When it pierces sun and moon, life and death are safe and secure. Dimensions depend on it, and Tianzhu depends on it. The three basic principles are indeed connected with life, and morality is their root.
"In Qi Tai Shi Jian, in Jin Dong Hu Bi" refers to two historians of Spring and Autumn periods. “In search of truth and direct writing, calligraphy does not hide” is a beautiful tradition of ancient Chinese historians. When there is a strong outside force that requires them to revise what they have written, many excellent historians will not hesitate to fight to death. In "Zuo Zhuan, Twenty-Five Years of Duke Xiang" it is recorded that Cui Zhu of State of Qi killed Duke Zhuang of Qi, and then Taishi recorded "Cui Zhu killed his king", so Cui Zhu killed Taishi again. But Taisha's two younger brothers continued to write, and both were killed. Cui Zhu threatened Taishi's third younger brother to reconsider, but he refused. Cui Zhu had no choice but to let him return. Along way, he met Nan Shishi. It was revealed that Nanshi clan was worried that Taishi would not record this matter after his death, so he brought a book to prepare to record event. In this incident, spirit of honesty of historian was fully manifested.
Dong Hu is official Jin historian. At that time, Zhao Dun had conflicts with Jin Lingong, and Jin Lingong wanted to kill Zhao Dun, so Zhao Dun was forced into exile. However, Zhao Dun's younger brother staged a coup and killed Duke Ling of Jin. So Dong Hu wrote: "Zhao Dun killed his king." In fact, Dong Hu analyzed situation at that time and thought that coup was planned by Zhao Dun, so he wrote it like this, and Zhao Dun was later helpless. This event is called "Dong Hu Zhibi", and Confucius remarked that "Dong Hu is a good story of ancient times, and its calligraphy is not hidden." In fact, many Chinese historians are of this spirit. Later, Ma Qian of Taishi Company was introduced. "No one in life has died since ancient times, so keep his devoted heart to reflect history." Leaving a name in history is one of Wen Tianxiang's most important values in life, which is why he puts it first.
Then, "Ying Qin Zhang Liangzhu" said that Zhang Liang had courage to kill Qin Shi Huang no matter life or death, and "Han Suwu Festival" said that Su Wu has been herding sheep in Beihai for nineteen years, Xianzhen is a relentless spirit. "Head of General Yang" refers to Yan Yan during Three Kingdoms period, who refused to surrender after being defeated by Zhang Fei. "Blood for Ji Shi" is Ji Kang's son, Ji Shao, who was killed to protect Emperor Jin Hui, and blood splattered Emperor Hui's clothes. Ji Shi is bleeding, don't leave." "This is Zhang Suiyang's Tooth" refers to Zhang Xun, a famous general of Tang Dynasty. After Anshi Rebellion, he was stuck in Suiyang. Later, when he failed and was captured , enemy asked him: "I heard that every time you fight, your eyes crack and your teeth are knocked out. Why is that so?" "Changshan language" refers to Yang. Gaoqing of Tang Dynasty. During Anshi Rebellion, he was captured in a surprise attack. He cursed at Mount Anlu and had his tongue torn off. was killed.
Su Wu herding sheep
"Maybe it's Liaodong's ice and snow clearing hat." We are talking about Kuan Ning at end of Eastern Han. Dynasty He's very straight forward, But he never goes to market. At end of Han Dynasty, he took refuge in Liaodong and refused to be recruited by imperial court. He often wears a black hat, lectures in peace and poverty, and is known throughout world. "Maybe to be a teacher, ghosts and gods cry heroically."" It is said that Zhuge Liang "dedicated himself to death", which everyone understands; "Or to cross Jiang Ji by generously swallowing Hu Ze", said Zu Ti of Eastern Jin Dynasty. He led his own trilogy to retake north, vowing to sweep away Central later, a large area of land was reclaimed, but without support of Eastern Jin Dynasty, it ultimately failed. "Perhaps in order to attack a thief, reverse vertical head broke", said Duan Xushi from Tang Dynasty.During reign of Tang Dezong, Zhu Xi rebelled and called Duan Xushi to discuss matters.Duan Xushi refused and hit Zhu Xi on head with cotton, swearing, "Crazy thief, I hate you if I don't cut ten thousand pieces of you, how can you rebel against me?
It can be seen from above examples that most of examples mentioned by Wen Tianxiang are from times of national crisis, and most of them committed suicide. Some of them are for righteousness of nation, such as Su Wu and Zu Ti; some are loyal to monarch, such as Ji Shao and Duan Xushi. Wen Tianxiang believes that righteousness they uphold is status of “dimensions depend on it, and pillars of heaven depend on it. The three basic principles are really connected to life, and morality is root.”Third, Wen Tianxiang's confession
In last part, Wen Tianxiang thought about his surroundings and described his feelings. If we understand Wen Tianxiang's personal experience, it will be easier for us to understand him. Wen Tianxiang was originally a very talented person, he became a jinshi at age of 20 and was promoted to first jinshi by emperor and later started an official career. However, he was not accustomed to bribing officials at imperial court: he once wrote a letter asking him to kill eunuch Dong Songchen and was dismissed for a while;
However, Wen Tianxiang stood up when country was in crisis. In 1275, Yuan dynasty was preparing to attack Hangzhou, and Song court ordered soldiers and horses from all over world from king. Therefore, Wen Tianxiang gathered tens of thousands of soldiers in Jiangxi and went to Hangzhou. Wen Tianxiang said, “The state has raised ministers and concubines for over three hundred years. When an emergency occurs and soldiers from all over world are called up for military service, no one enters pass. I deeply hate this. who rise when they hear wind." However, after Wen Tianxiang arrived in capital, he was no longer used. The imperial court appointed Lu Shimeng, from main peace-loving faction, as Minister of War, and Wen Tianxiang was forced to leave capital.
Later, when Yuan Dynasty army went south, Wen Tianxiang led resistance, but he lacked combat experience and everything failed. In desperation, Wen Tianxiang moved to Jiangxi and other places, and was eventually captured by Yuan Dynasty army. In poem “It costs nothing to go to Yangjiu, and official is not strong enough. The prisoner of Chu wears his crown and sends car to poor north” is a description of his own life experience. "Yangjiu" means "one hundred and six Yangjiu". National disaster. He lamented that he did not have strength to fight Yuan army and save country, so he became a "prisoner of Chu". "Prisoner of Chu" is also a hint. During Spring and Autumn period, Zhong Yi from State of Chu was captured by State of Jin, but he always wore hat of State of Chu. Others called him "The Prisoner of State of Chu". After that, a person who was captured by enemy in ancient times and did not forget national humiliation became a “Chui prisoner”.
The captive Chu decorates his crown with a fringe and sends his chariot to poor north. A tripod wok is sweet as sugar and it is impossible to ask for it. The yin house is full of will-o'-the-wisps, while spring court is closed and dark. Niu G is same soap, chickens live in phoenixes. Once covered in mist and dew, it divides into a barren moat. No matter how cold or hot, hundreds of diseases will easily heal themselves. It is a pity that you are in field, for my peaceful country. There is no such thing as Miao Qiao, yin and yang cannot be thieves. With this in mind, look up at floating clouds. My heart has been sad for a long time, sky is so amazing. The philosopher's day is far away, and punishment is in past. Books are shown and read on ledges, and ancient roads shine with color.
"The cauldron is as sweet as a cane, and you can't have it if you ask for it." But no matter how bad environment was, Wen Tianxiang believed that it was "Country of An Le". Why did he compare prison to "An Le Nation"? The Confucian scholars of ancient China believed that no matter how bad place they lived, they would not change their honesty. Yan Hui, Yang Xiong, Du Fu, and others once lived in "dilapidated rooms" for which Liu Yuxi wrote "Dilapidated Room Inscription". Although Wen Tianxiang is now a "prisoner of Chu" and in prison, he is not entirely saddened. Faced with “punishment is in past” situation, I still take out a book and read it to understand spirit of ancients.