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Historical documentation and DNA information on Jochi's identity

Is Shuchi (also spelled Zhuochi, Zhuchi, Zhuqi) real son of Genghis Khan? Many people are confused about this topic.

As eldest son of Great Khan, Jochi is mentioned in many novels (such as The Wolf by Japanese Inoue Yasushi and The Legend of Condor Heroes by Jin Yun) and many films. .The director and screenwriters wrote it indistinctly and unclearly. For literary creativity, it really increases power of literary presentation, but in fact, in original text of historical books, Shuchi is undoubtedly son of Genghis Khan. Modern people Genes and ancient DNA also contain clues.

1. Only two original documents

There are only two original historical documents that record history of origin of Mongolia: One of them is "Historical Collection", author of this book is Rashit, Prime Minister of Ilkhanate (AD 1247-1317) , he knew many secrets about Mongol court. The second is The Secret History of Mongolia, author unknown, written around 1240 AD. Judging by emotional orientation of author, this is probably an official of younger brother of Genghis Khan. , Tim Gevo Chijin.

Historical documentation and DNA information on Jochi's identity

All subsequent books, including "History of Yuan" and "History of Duosan Mongols", were written on basis of these two original materials.

2. Entries in book on history of Persia "Historical Collection"

Original text in second volume of first volume of "Historical Collection" of Il Khanate: According to people: When Genghis Khan and Merkid fought and Merkid won, Borte was pregnant with Jochi, Merkid tribe captured her. Since Merkid tribe had reconciled with Wang Khan at that time, they sent her to Wang Khan. Wang Khan treated her with respect because he was a longtime friend of Genghis Khan's father, and treated her like his daughter-in-law, calling Genghis Khan his son. His secrets told him, "Why don't you marry her?" He replied, "She is my sister-in-law. If I look at her with evil intentions, it would be shameless and dishonest." Genghis Khan learned that after this situation, he sent Saba, grandfather of Sart Henayan, who was in charge of Yerba, to Wan Khan to return his wife. Wang Han handed it to him with due respect. Jochi was born on her way back to Genghis Khan. Unable to stop to swaddle baby because road was dangerous, Saba kneaded a small lump of flour, wrapped it up and, hugging it in front, carefully returned it safe and sound. Since he was born suddenly, he was named Jochi.

In Historical Compendium written by Rashit, Prime Minister of Il-Khanate, it is clear that Queen Borte was pregnant with Jochi when she was kidnapped. Therefore, according to this original document, Jochi is undoubtedly son of Genghis Khan.

Third, temporary entries in "Secret History of Mongolia"

The Secret History of Mongolia does not mention if Borti was pregnant at time of abduction, but it does say that almost 4 months passed from time of abduction to rescue.

①The time of abduction of Queen Borte (June 1177)

Original text of The Secret History of Mongolia: Volume Three: They trotted horses and asked, "What's in this cart?" The old woman Ho Ahecheng said, "This is wool." The elder said, "My children, get off your horse and check." His children got off horse, opened car door and saw a woman sitting in car.

The time isn't actually written here, but time can be clearly deduced because Borte is sitting in a cart filled with wool. When is haircut time? To this day, Mongols in pastures shear sheep in June. Because they shear sheep too early, sheep freeze because they have no wool. If it is later, wool will start to fall out when summer comes, so shearing time is only 6 months of moon.

②Queen Borti was saved during birth of Jochi (October 1177 AD)

Original text of The Secret History of Mongolia, Volume III: (Dzhamuka, Wang Khan and other armies) set out from Botukhan-Burji, arrived at Qinlehuo River, crossed on a raft and attacked meadows of Buvula. House of Hetto Abeki. Air raids entered through window in roof of his tent, destroyed important frame of tent,they took his wife and children captive, smashed doorpost of his blessing god, and massacred all his people.

There is a key message here: "Come to Qinlehuo River and cross it on a raft." On other hand, "float on a raft" means that river is not frozen, but raft is ready. cross river. The winter temperature of Shilok River is below -50 degrees, and river here freezes in late September-early October every year. The time to recapture Madame Borte will be no later than October, maybe even August or September.

③Queen Bertie was pregnant when she was kidnapped

Original text of The Secret History of Mongolia: Volume Three: "Wake up kids!" After saying that, Mother Hoelun quickly stood up. Timuzhen and his sons also got up quickly and seized their horses. Timudzhin was riding. Hoelun's mother rode a horse, and Khasar rode a horse. Hechiwen rode a horse, Timug Ud Chijin rode a horse, Belgutai rode a horse, Bur Chu rode a horse, and Jelme rode a horse. Te Dalun was held in her arms by Hoelun's mother and a horse was prepared as an accompaniment. Madame Borte had no horses.

It is easy to see that every member of Genghis Khan's family has a horse, and there is an extra "Kongma" (Ketuanle, which means spare horse), but Borte did not ride a horse. not ride it? There is only one reason, she is already pregnant with a child and it is inconvenient to ride a horse.

Thus, according to records in Secret History of Mongolia, Queen Borte was pregnant with Jochi when she was kidnapped, and she gave birth to Jochi 4 months after kidnapping. Jochi is undoubtedly son of Genghis Khan. The likelihood that Mirkiren will have a baby with Borte within 4 months is practically zero.

Fourthly, data from scientific articles on genes of modern humans

Among modern people, descendants of Jochi belong to papers C2-Y4541, there are too many of them, I will list only a few.

In article "Nirunas and subclade C2a3-F4002 (star cluster)" of 2014, it was found in article that some individuals from genus Tuka Timur and almost entire genus Shiban in Tore tribe belonged to same Y chromosome type C2- F4002 (The early years are not detailed enough, this type is upper reaches of Y4541), ancestor of Tuka Timur clan - Tuka Timur, 13th son of Jochi, ancestor of Shiban clan - Shiban, fifth son of Jochi.

Historical documentation and DNA information on Jochi's identity

The same article introduces Belgutei tribe (the ancestor of Genghis Khan's younger brother Belgutai) and Kuki tribe (the ancestor of this tribe is Mange Tukiyan, older brother of Genghis Khan's father Yesuge) in Yuzi, Kazakhstan. , also belong to same type of Y-chromosome C2-F4002 (this type is upstream from Y4541), it is easy to judge by their relationship, it is certain that Genghis Khan family belongs to C2 star cluster.

Historical documentation and DNA information on Jochi's identity

In article "Connection of genetic, cultural and geographical landscapes of Maverannakhr" in 2016, it was presented that in Uzbekistan in XV-XVI centuries Uzbek Khanate, which defeated Timurid Empire, descendants of its monarch Shaibeni Khan, each branch - C2-4002, which is upper reaches of Y4541. The ancestor of Shaibani Khan was Khan of Blue Horde Khanate, founded by fifth son of Jochi, Shayban.

Historical documentation and DNA information on Jochi's identity

Introduced in "Development of Kazakh Reference Database of Y-Chromosome Haplotypes: Analysis of 27 Y-STRs in Kazakh Population" in 2018, there are 3 representatives of Kazakh Tore tribe, and Y-chromosome paternal lineage is C2. -Y4541, specifically C-Y4541-F8949-FT411734, paternal ancestors of these three Torre members are all Jochi.

It can be seen that pedigree of the Jochi family should be C2-M130>M217>L1373>F3447>F1699>M504>Y4519>Y11121>F3796>Y11098>Y4580>Y4633>Y8818>Y4569>Y4541>F8949- FT411834

Historical documentation and DNA information on Jochi's identity

According to "Medieval Mongolian roots of Y-chromosome lineages from South Kazakhstan" in 2020, Dulat, a descendant of second son of Genghis Khan, Chagatai, is also classified as C2-Y4541, and specific downline is C-Y4541. -F12782.

Chagatai family pedigree: C2-M130>M217>L1373>F3447>F1699>M504>Y4519>Y11121>F3796>Y11098>Y4580>Y4633>Y8818>Y4569>Y4541>Y12782

Historical documentation and DNA information on Jochi's identity

Based on above, descendants of different branches of Jochi, descendants of his younger brother Chagatai, all belong to star cluster (C2-Y4541), descendants of his uncle Belgutei and descendants of his great-uncle The descendants of Mangetu Kiyan belong to at least upper limits star cluster (C2-F3796). From genetic relationship of modern people, one can easily conclude that Jochi must be biological son of Genghis Khan.

The genealogy of Jochi family, eldest son of Genghis Khan: C2-M130>M217>L1373>F3447>F1699>M504>Y4519>Y11121>F3796>Y11098>Y4580>Y4633>Y8818>Y4569>Y4541>F8949 -FT411834

Pedigree of Chagatai family, second son of Genghis Khan, C2-M130>M217>L1373>F3447>F1699>M504>Y4519>Y11121>F3796>Y11098>Y4580>Y4633>Y8818>Y4569>Y4541> Y12782

The common ancestor of both is at SNP Y4541, which was generated 950 years ago, which basically coincides with Genghis Khan's birth date of 1162 AD.

V. The only ancient DNA data of members of golden family identified by scientific papers

In article "137 ancient human genomes from all over Eurasian steppes", published on "Nature" in 2018, an ancient individual appears under number DA28, its Y chromosome is C2-Y4541, maternal line is D4m2, address is in Karasuyr, Kazakhstan.

According to another 2014 article "The Ethno-Cultural Code of Military Groups of Ulus Jochi from Archeology of Karasuyr Burial Ground, Ulytau, Central Kazakhstan", this grave is dated between 1270 and 1320 AD. (about 750 years ago -700 years ago), owner of tomb believed in Tibetan Buddhism (translation: lamaism) with elements of shamanism (translation shamanism). He lived in era of Kozi Khan of White Horde Khanate, and owner of this tomb was a member of Golden Family of Kozi Khan.

The genealogy is as follows: Genghis Khan→(eldest son) Shuchi→(eldest son) Orda→(eldest son) Saerta Hei→(eldest son) Keki.

So far, this is only ancient information about DNA of a member of Golden Family that has been recognized by archaeologists. It has an official academic source, and so-called Hezan Khan information belongs to netizens on forum.

This golden member of Kozi Khan family belongs to C2-Y4541, this person's ancestry is C2-M130>M217>L1373>F3447>F1699>M504>Y4519>Y11121>F3796>Y11098>Y4580>Y4633>Y8818>Y4569> Y4541>. Being a member of Golden Clan (or even with a high degree of probability a descendant of son of Jochi Orda), this ancient man is absolutely sure that Jochi himself is son of Genghis Khan.

Author's addition:

Many friends asked why Genghis Khan named his son Jochi? Jochi means "Zhuqing" in modern Mongolian, which means guest, but in modern Mongolian, appearance of a guest on this day means good luck, a happy event and an auspicious omen, and it does not mean that you are not a real son.

Among Mongols of Yuan Dynasty, there were many names named Shuchi, mostnotable ones included Genghis Khan's younger brother Zhuochi Khesar (meaning "guest beast") and Genghis Khan's uncle, one of top ten Xiuchitai (meaning guests) should mean this is a good sign that guests are coming, not that they are not their own sons.

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