During Ming Dynasty, there were several canonized chiefs in northern part of southeastern peninsula, which were later collectively referred to as "three propagandas and six amenities." These chiefs accepted canonization of Ming Dynasty in words, but in fact, Ming Dynasty did not send soldiers, soldiers, officials or posts here, so control of Ming Dynasty here is very weak. Because of this, after establishment of Taungoo dynasty in Myanmar, these leaders surrendered to Myanmar one by one, which greatly reduced boundaries of southwestern region.1. Source of Three Announcements and Six Consolations: The Conquest of Yuan Dynasty
The origin of "Three Claims and Six Amenities" can be traced back to Yuan Dynasty. After founding of Yuan Dynasty, Yunnan-Guizhou region implemented a chieftainship system, stationed an army, and established Lufu prefectures and counties, realizing "combined soil and flow management". At that time, countries such as Chen dynasty in Vietnam, Bagan dynasty in Myanmar, Sukhothai dynasty in Thailand, Angkor dynasty in Cambodia, Lancang dynasty in Laos and Champa existed in Indochina peninsula at that time. The Yuan dynasty continued to make expeditions against these dynasties. Since Mongol army was not good at fighting in tropical mountainous regions, most of these wars ended in defeat of Yuan dynasty. However, after war, these countries chose to submit to Yuan dynasty in exchange for peace and became vassal states of Yuan dynasty.
Southeast Asia during Yuan Dynasty
However, Myanmar is relatively special. In 1277, Burmese Bagan Dynasty was unhappy with behavior of Golden Tooth chief who had surrendered to Yuan Dynasty and sent troops to attack Golden Tooth. Thus, Yuan Dynasty immediately sent 38,000 troops to attack Burma, and Burma was defeated. The Yuan army did not retreat until city of Jiangtou. After departure of Yuan army, Myanmar continued its advance towards Jintut. In 1280, Yuan Dynasty sent troops to Myanmar for second time, and they fought as far as city of Taigong (Degang). The King of Myanmar was horrified and quickly surrendered to Yuan Dynasty. At this time, civil strife broke out in Myanmar, and Bagan dynasty fell apart, part of these divided forces surrendered to Yuan dynasty, and part bowed their heads to Siam (Thailand). Subsequently, Yuan Dynasty created Panya, Yunyuan, Mengguang, Mubang, Menggliang, Menglai, Tongxi, Mengbing, Mengguang and other chiefs in Manman, Myanmar, who were under jurisdiction of Yunnan Province. This was a first in Southeast Asia. Set toast.
Besides Myanmar, chieftains created by Yuan dynasty were also common in Laos and northern Thailand. Back in Song Dynasty today, Laos, Menglao and Lanna in northern Thailand belonged to Jinglong, and Jinglong was a subsidiary of Dali. After Meng Yuan destroyed Dali, he established military and civil administration of Cheli Road (Cheli) in Jinglong. But at this time, Menglao and Lanna separated from Jinglong, so Yuan dynasty created Mengqing Xuanwei division at Menglao and Babai Xuanwei division at Lanna, and later merged with Babai and other Xuanwei divisions. In 1338, General Military and Civil Administration of Laogao was established in Laos. The chiefs created by Yuan Dynasty were mostly Thai (called Dai in China and Shan in Burma) inhabited areas, sharing same language, culture and region. Today, these areas of Myanmar are still referred to as Shan State.
Yunnan Province under Yuan Dynasty2. Recanonization of Southeast Asian Chiefs by Ming Dynasty
After founding of Ming Dynasty, she inherited canonization of chiefs of Southeast Asia from Yuan Dynasty and made some adjustments in accordance with changes in her power. At beginning of Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang founded Mengyang, Mubang and Burma in 1382 and changed them to Mengyang Iweixi, Mubang Xuanweixi and Myanmar Xuanweixi respectively in Yongle period. In fourth year of Yongle reign (1406), Chengzu of Ming Dynasty gave Mon, Karen, and Shan people of southern Myanmar names of Dagul Xuanweixi and Dimas Xuanweixi. on land of Dagul, Divula Xuanwei division was created. Since then, Ming Dynasty has granted six consolation divisions in Southeast Asia, namely Mengyang, Mubang, Myanmar, Dagula, Divula, and Dimasa. Apart from six Xuanweixi, there are also several minor chiefs such as Meng Mansion Gen Yui appointed in third year of Yongle's reign;
Distribution of Xuanweisi in Indochina Peninsula
In Thailand and northern Laos, Ming Dynasty also inherited titles of Yuan Dynasty here. In Hongwu's 16th year (1383), "Luchuan, Burma, Cheli, Laos, and Babai are annexed and they should be Xuanwei Department." In the second year of Yongle's reign (1404), Laos was annexed and Emperor Yongle canonized him as Laos Xuanweixi.
Starting from Yongle period, three Xuanwei divisions in southern Myanmar, Dagula, Diwula and Dimas, were controlled by Mon people who founded Pegu Dynasty and have since lost contact with Ming Dynasty. Therefore, during reign of Xuande, there were only six divisions of Xuanwei in Indochina Peninsula, and they were called "Six Wei", which nominally belonged to area of "outer barbarians" in Yunnan province. During Xuande's reign, Ming Dynasty destroyed Luchuan's Second Xuanfu Division and divided it into Nandian Xuanfu Division, Ganya Xuanfu Division and Longchuan Xuanfu Division, which were also called "Three Xuan", which belonged to "Inland Division". Yunnan province. belong" to area. And "three announcements and six consolations" became a common term for Yunnan chiefs.Thirdly, departure of chiefs of Southeast Asia
Unlike military forces of Yuan Dynasty, which penetrated deep into Southeast Asia, Ming Dynasty did not send any official, or soldier, or soldier to region of leaders of Indochina Peninsula, but only remained at level of canonization. Thus, Ming dynasty's control over chiefs in area was much less than that of chiefs in Yunnan and Guizhou. From an economic point of view, chiefs of Southeast Asia did not have task of paying taxes to Ming dynasty, and both sides were bound by "tribute" trade. At end of Ming Dynasty, Xuanwei Department in Laos paid homage to Ming Dynasty 30 times, while Xuanwei Department in Myanmar paid only 5 times. These chiefs "paid tribute" to Ming dynasty by domesticating elephants, ivory, rhinoceros horn, spices, gold and silver items, etc., mainly for Ming emperor. However, with regard to non-state trade, Ming Dynasty severely restricted or even banned it. It also makes integration of Southeast Asian chieftain and Yunnan-Guizhou economy difficult.
The creation of Southeast Tusi was mainly due to opportunities provided by conquest of Yuan Dynasty and division of Burma and Thailand. Under Ming Dynasty, when military power did not penetrate deep into Southeast Asia, control over these leaders was very weak. As soon as countries like Myanmar and Thailand begin to move towards unification, fall of these leaders will become inevitable. During early Ming Dynasty in Myanmar, Northern and Southern Dynasties formed, with Bago Dynasty in south and Awa Dynasty in north. The two dynasties fought each other for 40 years. Apart from these two dynasties, there were also countries of Taungoo, Mubang, Mengyang, Menmi, Arakan, etc. in Myanmar at that time. Some of them accepted canonization of Ming dynasty by name, but were actually one of Burmese princes.
The Taungoo dynasty at its peak
In 1531, Taungoo dynasty was founded, which soon eliminated Pego dynasty and main secessionist forces in central and southern regions and embarked on path of unification of Burma. In 1551, Toungoo dynasty destroyed Awa dynasty, at which point Myanmar declared unity again. From 1556 to 1557, Tunggu dynasty conquered Wengbang, Mengmi, Mengong, Mengyang, Mennai, Liangrui, Yaoshao, Mengbi and other places, and local Shan peoples surrendered one by one. By 1581, Toungoo dynasty had 51 vassal states. After that, Taungu dynasty continued to attack Ming Dynasty's "outfield" Xuanweixi, and Ming Dynasty also sent troops to fight. The war between two sides continued until 1606. ...All in autumn.
The territory of Yunnan during late Ming Dynasty