Enlightenment is an educational education for children in ancient China. The content of ancient enlightenment education is mainly teaching of literacy, writing and ethics. In ancient China, there are "Three-character classic", "Student regulations", "Hundred surnames", "Thousand hieroglyphs", "Meng Qiu", "Zeng Guang Xian Wen", "Thousand verses", "Long shadow of Wen's whip". ”, Introductory teaching materials such as “Teaching Qionglin Children” and “Rhythm Enlightenment”. Reading these reading materials can not only improve children's memory, lay foundation for study of classics, but also understand some of principles of life. However, due to changing times, some books are not suitable for today's children's books. So, which classic is still suitable for modern times?
First of all, "San Zi Jing" and "Di Zi Gui" are still well-known elementary school classic textbooks. The main idea of the two essays is Confucian ethics, which can be said to be a miniature version of classics such as Confucius's Analects, Mencius and The Book of Filial Piety. "San Zi Jing" also includes some basic knowledge of culture, geography, astronomy, history, etc., such as "The poem is dead, and Spring and Autumn period is written." It contains praise and criticism, and distinguishes between good and evil" - essence of book "Spring and Autumn". Another reason why "Classic of Three Symbols" is still circulating is that it is short, concise, catchy and simple. for understanding.
In beginning of man, nature is good. Sex is similar, but habits are far away. If you don't teach, your gender will change. The way of learning is expensive. Former Menmu, choose a neighbor. If you don't learn, you will die. Dou Yanshan has a righteous recipe. Teach five sons, all known. It is fault of father, to educate or not to teach. If teaching is not strict, teacher is lazy. If you don't study, it doesn't fit. If you don't study when you are young, why should you be old? Jade is not carved, not a device. If people do not study, they will not know righteousness. —— Choice "Three-character classic"
Di Zi Gui is a three-character poem written by Li Yuxiu, an educator from Qing Dynasty. Its content is taken from sixth article of "Xue Er Pian" in "The Analects of Confucius": "When students enter, they will be respectful; when they leave, they will be brotherly. It consists of three words, one sentence, two sentences and one rhyme. The full text consists of 360 sentences and 1080 characters. Its content is code of life for schoolchildren, compiled according to teachings of Confucius, and its main idea is Confucian filial piety, benevolence and love. Acquaintance with "Regulations on students" contributes to formation of personal qualities.
The clothes are expensive and clean, not luxurious. The top is divided and bottom is called house. When it comes to food, don't be picky. Eat in moderation, but not too much. When you're young, don't drink alcohol. Drunk is worst. Walk calmly and stand straight. Bow deeply and roundly, bow respectfully. ——Excerpt from "Charter of Disciple"
Another great educational book is "Zengguang Xianwen" is a children's educational bibliography compiled during Ming Dynasty in China. It collects various Chinese proverbs and proverbs from ancient times to present day. Its content is extensive, from etiquette and morality, laws and ruled to allusions to landscapes, astronomy and geography, almost everything is included, and sentences are fluent and easy to understand. "Zeng Guang Xian Wen" is based on premise of "evil nature", looking at social life with a stern look, and talks about suffering, vicissitudes, darkness, cold and hypocrisy in world. Among them are many well-known sayings and aphorisms that have passed through centuries, for example, “it is difficult to paint skin of a tiger, paint its bones, knowing face, but not heart.” Zengguang Xianwen is conditionally divided into: one people and interpersonal relationships, another is about destiny, a third is about how to live in world, and a fourth is about expressing views on reading.At same time, "Zeng Guang Xian Wen" also encourages people to do good, such as: "You should not have courage to harm others, and you should not have courage to defend yourself against others." These were influenced by Buddhist thought and may have represented thoughts of ordinary Chinese at time.
The waves across Yangtze River drive waves forward, and newcomers to world overtake old ones. The first moon hits buildings near water, and sunny flowers and trees come in spring as early as possible. The ancients did not see current month, but this month once illuminated ancients. Become a king first, then a minister. Mo Daojun drives early, and there are even early walkers. Do not believe in frankness and directness, and beware of benevolence and inhumanity. There are straight trees in mountains, but there are no straight people in world. Hate yourself branches without leaves, do not blame sun for slanting. Everything is fate, and it cannot be controlled in any way. The plan for year lies in spring, and plan for day lies in Yin. The plan of family is in harmony, plan of life is in diligence. ——From "Zeng Guang Xian Wen"
As for other reading materials, due to their time constraints, most of them are not suitable for reading today. For example, meaning of "A Thousand Symbols" is difficult to understand and its ideas are mostly metaphysical, so it is not suitable for children to read, and also difficult for people in literature department to read. "One Hundred Family Surnames" records only surnames, which is not of great importance.
Ancient Chinese poetry and literature was very developed, and works such as "Book of Songs", "Three Hundred Poems of Tang", "Three Hundred Poems of Song Qi" and "Thousand Family Poems" are also very common as enlightening reading. materials. Due to long time and vast amount of Chinese poetry creation, choosing suitable verses for children to read is a relatively large workload. The editor suggests that you read "A Dictionary of Famous Chinese Poems and Sentences" because verses in this book mainly contain most classical verses. The so-called "verses and books in womb are self-sufficient", and familiarity with famous poems and sentences can improve people's ability to appreciate beauty of nature and enhance their literary qualities.