6000 years have passed since birth of civilization, but only more than 5100 years have passed since birth of first united kingdom of mankind. During these 5000 years, different civilizations and countries have arisen in Western Asia, North Africa, South Asia, East Asia, Europe, America and Africa. During these 5000 years, China has become most powerful country in world many times, and its time has lasted 1000 years, which is very worthy of China's pride. Let's look at when China led world.1. Western Zhou Dynasty
Before Western Zhou Dynasty, China outlived Xia Dynasty and Shang Dynasty, but Xia Dynasty and Shang Dynasty still lagged behind Lianghe civilization and ancient Egyptian civilization. In 3100 BC Ancient Egypt established unity and established an early dynasty (3100 BC - 2686 BC). Later, it went through several stages, including Old Kingdom (2686-2181 BC), Middle Kingdom (2040-1786 BC) and New Kingdom (1567-1085 BC). ). Mesopotamia was unified in 2371 BC. and successively outlived Kingdom of Akkad (2371-2191 BC), Third Dynasty of Ur (2113-2006 BC) and Babylonian Kingdom (1792-1600 BC). Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt formed a strict state system long before Xia Dynasty, while China's state system did not mature until the Western Zhou Dynasty.
During Western Zhou Dynasty, Babylonian region fell into chaos and foreigners continued to invade; The new kingdom of Egypt perished and entered a post-dynastic decline; Aryans are still in a relatively backward "Vedic age". At that time, Xi Zhou became leader. In terms of institutions, national system of government was perfect, forming a patriarchal system, a system of enfeoffment, and a system of country; in economic terms, state completely controlled land (the system of well fields), industry and trade (industrial and trade food officials), as well as brilliant technology of bronze smelting appeared; in terms of culture, it changed from "respect for sky and ghosts" in Shang Dynasty to "putting people first", which laid foundation of China's ideology for 3,000 years. Cultural classics such as "Shanshu" and "Book of Changes" emerged. In terms of territory, Western Zhou dynasty also occupied first place in world at that time.
The Western Zhou dynasty maintained its leading position for about 150 years. After King Mu Zhou, Western Zhou dynasty went into decline. Subsequently, one after another, Assyrian dynasty (883-612 BC), Neo-Babylonian kingdom (630-539 BC) and Median kingdom in Western Asia arose, replacing leading position of Western Zhou dynasty.
Assyrian EmpireII. Qin and Han dynasties
During Spring and Autumn period and Warring States Period, although China was very active ideologically, its national power relatively declined due to inability to unify country. During Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period, world entered Age of Empires. The earliest empire in world was Achaemenid dynasty in Persia (550-330 BC). Several generations of her monarchs conquered east and west and founded first empire spanning Asia, Europe and Africa, with an area of 7 million square kilometers. The Persian Empire unified national economy and culture, introduced a provincial system, built roads, and established a strong centralization. After that, Greece and Macedonia rebelled, destroyed Persian Empire and founded Macedonian Empire (330-323 BC), which accelerated integration of West Asian and Greek civilizations. After division of Macedonia, Seleucid dynasty in Western Asia continued to be strong. Subsequently, empire of Magadha arose in India, and in time of Ashoka (268-232 BC), India was unified. However, after death of Ashoka, empire fell apart.
Only in 221 BC. China unified, established Qin Dynasty, and entered era of empire. At this time, Seleucid dynasty was in decline, Mauryan Empire collapsed, and Roman Republic did not unite Mediterranean coast, and Qin dynasty became most powerful country in world. After Qin Dynasty, Han Dynasty came and doubled its territory. Politically, Qin and Han dynasties established centralization and introduced a system of prefectures and districts. The central bureaucratic system was improved, autocratic monarchy was implemented, small-scale peasant economy of intensive agriculture was fully developed economically, bread production in China began to occupy first place in world, but commodity economy was not very well developed, culturally a great unification of cultures arose, such as Han Fu, "Historical Records" and so on.
The leadership of Qin and Han eras ended around 48 BC. This year, Han Dynasty ended "Zhaoxuan Regime" and Han Dynasty entered a dangerous period after which it survived Wang Mang's reform and Chimei Lulin's rebellion. 48 years ago, Roman Caesar became dictator for life, Roman Empire was effectively created, and Rome completely turned Mediterranean Sea into its own inland lake. For a long time after that, Roman Empire was in lead.
Roman EmpireIII. Early Tang dynasty
In 189, Eastern Han Dynasty survived only nominally, and China entered chaotic Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties. At that time, world was dominated by Roman Empire and Persian Sassanid dynasty. In 363, Roman Sassanid dynasty defeated Roman Empire at Battle of Samarra, and from then on Roman Empire plunged into civil war until it split in 395. But Sassanid dynasty reached its peak and became most powerful country in world. The Sassanid dynasty once reclaimed territory of First Persian Empire in Western Asia and North Africa with an area of more than 5 million square kilometers. In 6th century, Eastern Roman Empire grew stronger under Justinian, however, Eastern Roman Empire was overwhelmed by Persia and can only be ranked as second most powerful empire in world. The Sui Dynasty of China was once powerful after reunification, but soon collapsed.
It wasn't until Tang Dynasty unified entire country in 630 that it became most powerful country in world. At that time, Persian Sassanid dynasty was in decline and was gradually supplanted by Arab Empire. The territory of Eastern Roman Empire was absorbed by Arabia, leaving only Southeastern Europe and Turkey. Only Arab Empire can be compared to Tang Dynasty. The prosperity of Tang Dynasty was all-encompassing prosperity. In military terms, he defeated Eastern Turkic, Western Turkic, Koguryeo, Tuyuhun, Xue Yanto and other large countries and expanded sphere of influence to Mongolian highlands and Central Asia. Politically, it inherited political system of Sui Dynasty, introduced civil service system (imperial examination) for first time, and had far-reaching influence; in economic sphere, it pursued an open policy, industry and trade flourished; Culturally, poetry and prose flourished. and a large number of foreign cultural broadcasts. Entry into China accelerated cultural integration.
The leading position of Tang Dynasty continued until "Anshi Uprising". In 750, Abbasid dynasty in Arabia replaced Umayyad dynasty and began to replace Tang dynasty's leadership position. In second year, Battle of Talas took place, a landmark war for a change of status. In 755, Anshi rebellion broke out, Tang dynasty fell into decline and gradually fell into a separatist regime. Since then, Abbasid dynasty has become most powerful country in world. After collapse of Arab Empire, Persian Samanid dynasty became strong again.
Arab Abbasid dynastyIV, Northern Song dynasty to early Ming dynasty
In 960, Northern Song Dynasty was founded and gradually unified Ten Kingdoms. Although Northern Song Dynasty was mostly defeated in wars against Xixia, Vietnam and Liao, this did not affect status of most powerful country in world. The main reason for military failures of Northern Song Dynasty was problems in military system, and excessive strengthening of centralization weakened local army. But Northern Song dynasty reached peak of ancient China economically and culturally, and at that time it was also pinnacle of world. Although Liao Kingdom and Seljuk Empire were powerful militarily, they were no match for Northern Song Dynasty economically and culturally, so Northern Song Dynasty was country with strongest all-encompassing national power at that time. The Northern Song dynasty was destroyed by Jin Kingdom in 1127. The Kingdom of Jin occupied most of northern China and continued to be most powerful country in world.
In 1206, Temujin founded Mongol Empire, and then undertook several expeditions to Eurasian continent, becoming a worldwide empire of 24 million square kilometers. In 1260 Kublai Khan came to power and Mongol Empire was divided. In 1271, Kublai Khan founded Yuan dynasty, still maintaining position of most powerful power in world. The Yuan Dynasty not only had a powerful military force, but also maintained a prosperous economy, but Yuan Dynasty did not achieve much in terms of culture.
In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew Yuan Dynasty and founded Ming Dynasty, which at that time became most powerful country in world. During Zhu Di period, national power of Ming Dynasty reached its peak, with an area of 7 million square kilometers and a population of 60 million people. All over world, while Timurid Empire was strong for a time, it was just a flash in pan. In 1449, Ming dynasty experienced "Chimubao Change" and began to decline. The main thing to note is that Yuan Dynasty and early Ming Dynasty were able to become most powerful country in world, mainly due to their large size. In terms of economic, economic and cultural development, Yuan Dynasty began to lag behind Europe, Italy and other places. Since Southern Song Dynasty, Western countries have begun transition to modernity, such as emergence of capitalism in economy, parliaments in politics, and medieval universities in culture. During Yuan Dynasty, West experienced a renaissance, and Great Navigational Movement began at beginning of the Ming Dynasty.
Map of Ming Dynasty
By 16th century, colonies of Portuguese and Spanish empires were established around world, and Netherlands in 17th century became "sea coachman". On land, Russia continued to expand and reached Pacific by late Ming Dynasty. Since then, although traditional empires such as China (Qing Dynasty), Turkish Empire and Mughal Empire in India have remained very strong, in end they have fallen behind global trend because "the setting sun is infinitely beautiful, but it is only closer to twilight. The center of world competition has shifted from Eurasian continent to Atlantic coast.