Currently, China is only on edge of one ocean, namely Pacific Ocean. If Chinese ships want to import oil from Persian Gulf, they must bypass Strait of Malacca, but Strait of Malacca is controlled by other countries, which jeopardizes my country's oil security. This led us to believe that China's Yunnan is only 470 kilometers from Indian Ocean, which is divided by Myanmar. Why didn't China include Myanmar in its territory in ancient times and didn't open Indian Ocean?1. Development of Han Dynasty
We must first understand history of China's development in southwest in ancient times before we can know how China moved closer to Indian Ocean step by step. In ancient times, southwestern region was a land of high mountains, deep valleys, and dense forests that could not be crossed. In pre-Qin period, people did not know about existence of "Southwestern Yi", not to mention existence of Indian Ocean. Even Qin dynasty, which had great martial arts, could not reach Yunnan-Guizhou plateau.
During Western Han Dynasty, temptation from India finally gave Han Emperor Wu ambition to open up southwest. During reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, Zhang Qian went on a mission to Western Regions and saw Shu products in Daxia (Bactria), after inquiring, he learned that these products were brought from Shendu (India). Zhang Qian told Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty about this, so Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty tried to open up traffic to India and sent Wang Ranyu, Bai Shichang, Lu Yueren and others to southwest Yi to find a way to India.
However, steps of envoys of Han Dynasty stopped in Dian Kingdom. Due to complex topography of Hengduan Mountain region, dense primeval forests, and many poisonous snakes and beasts, envoy could no longer pass. During reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, southwestern border advanced towards central part of Yunnan, but could not continue to advance. Under Eastern Han Dynasty, state of Ailao (now Baoshan) surrendered and founded Yongchang County. The territory of Han Dynasty advanced to western part of Yunnan.
Yongchang County during Han Dynasty was area where Han Dynasty advanced farthest in southwestern region. Since then, Shu Han, Jin Dynasty, Southern Dynasty and Northern Dynasty have not had a pioneering power, and it is not easy to maintain such a position. Under Tang Dynasty, natives in southwestern region grew in large numbers, and regimes such as Nanzhao Kingdom and Luoshi Phantom Kingdom arose, and Tang Dynasty's power extended to Jinsha River area. In 800 years of existence of world, China not only did not move forward, but also retreated.Second, Yuan dynasty conquered Burma.
After foundation of state of Nanzhao, it expanded on a large scale in southwestern region, and its territory advanced in southwest to Mandalay region, Pyu State of Myanmar. After disintegration of Nanzhao kingdom, Dali kingdom mostly inherited its territory, but overall it was reduced to a certain extent. Southwest Dali reached city of Jiangtou (Jiesa) in Myanmar, which can be said to be relatively close to Indian Ocean. In 1253 AD, Dali Kingdom was conquered by Great Mongol Kingdom, and in 1270 Yunnan Province was established. Thereafter, Yuan dynasty continued to expand southwest based on Nanzhao and Dali.
At that time, Bagan dynasty ruled in Myanmar. Kublai Khan, Emperor Shizu of Yuan Dynasty, sent envoys to Bagan to ask him to surrender. But messenger never returned. In 1277, Burma sent troops to attack Yingjiang and Jinchi in Yunnan. Therefore, Yuan dynasty decided to destroy Bagan dynasty. At that time, Yuan Dynasty army stationed in Yunnan advanced towards city of Jiangtou, but could not continue offensive due to hot weather. In 1280, Kublai Khan started war again. By 1283, both Jiangtou City and Taigong City had been breached and 12 tribes in northern Myanmar had surrendered. In 1285, king of Bagan formally surrendered to Yuan dynasty.
After this expedition, Myanmar was actually torn apart, and dynasty exists only in name. The Yuan Dynasty established a large number of institutions in Myanmar, such as Tulutai Road, Yunyuan Road, Mengliang Road, Menglai Road and Mubang Road, and established Central Myanmar Province (1286-1290) to administer it. This means that for first time in history Myanmar has been incorporated into China, and this will also be last time. During reign of Shundi Emperor of Yuan Dynasty, various ministries in Myanmar began to be abolished, and chieftainships were established in their place. Among chieftains created in Myanmar by Yuan dynasty were Pangya, Yunyuan, Menguang, Mubang, Mengliang, Menglai, Tonxi, Mengbin and Menguang.Third, complete retreat of Ming Dynasty in Burma.
China during Yuan Dynasty was so close to Indian Ocean. If future generations can inherit legacy of Yuan Dynasty and carry out "land reform and return to local people" in Myanmar, then southwest China will be at edge of Indian Ocean. It is a pity that Ming Dynasty did not inherit Yuan Dynasty business, and its territory was reduced by 10 million square kilometers based on Yuan Dynasty.
In 1382, 30 Ming Dynasty soldiers destroyed remnants of King Liang of Yunnan and Dali Kingdom, established Yunnan Chief Commissioner and Yunnan Capital, and stationed 200,000 soldiers. Yunnan during Ming Dynasty can be divided into two parts: one part is a virtual control zone known as "inland barbarians"; other part is territory of Burma, which nominally inherited Yuan dynasty, without actual control, without deployment of a single soldier. , without sending a single Official and half-work are called "foreign barbarians."
During reign of Zhu Yuanzhang, leaders of "foreign barbarians" included Central Myanmar, Cheli, Laos and Babai 4 Xuanweixi and 5 tufu in Mubang, Mengyang, Mengding, Dahou and Nandian. During Yongle period, five tufu were abolished and Mengyangiveixi, Mubang Xuanweixi, Nandian Xuanfuxi, and Ganya Xuanfuxi were created. In southern Myanmar, Grand Gula Xuanwei Division, Dimasa Xuanwei and Diwula Xuanwei Division have recently been established.
In fact, these leaders are small independent countries, a manifestation of divided state of Myanmar. The leaders of these leaders actually called themselves kings. For example, Xuanweixi in Myanmar is actually Kingdom of Ava, Xuanweixi in Dagul is actually Kingdom of Bago, and Demasa and Diwula are Kingdoms of Taungoo. During Yongle period, these three dynasties rejected Yongle's canonization and were no longer nominally associated with Ming dynasty. And kingdoms of Mubang, Mengyang, Menmi and Arakan in northern Myanmar mingled with Ming dynasty and three kingdoms, with first and second ends. The "Three Announcements and Six Consolations" named in middle of Ming Dynasty no longer included three southern kingdoms.
King Taungoo officially became King of Myanmar in 1531 and founded Taungoo dynasty. Thereafter, he successively annexed small kingdoms such as Bagu, Ava, Xibo, Manmo, Mengyang, Mengmi, Meng Nai, and Yanghui. By 1554, Myanmar region was largely unified. After that, Taungu captured kingdom of Lanna (Babaidian Xuanweixi), kingdom of Lancang (Laos Xuanweixi), chief Menmi, etc.
The war between Ming and Myanmar lasted for decades, with end result being that Taungoo united all of Myanmar and occupied half of Indochina peninsula. The "Six Comforts" in "Three Propaganda and Six Comforts" of Ming Dynasty basically fell, leaving only three small Xuanfu divisions. Since then, after this battle, "foreign barbarians" in Yunnan no longer exist, and area of Yunnan has been greatly reduced.
Yunnan at beginning of Ming Dynasty
Yunnan at End of Ming DynastyFourth, Qing Dynasty brought order to mess left by Ming Dynasty.
After Qing Dynasty entered into customs, Nanming was destroyed and mainland was unified. As for Yunnan, early Qing Dynasty inherited mess left by Ming Dynasty. The chiefs of Mengyang, Mubang and Manmu (Manmo) in Yunnan had long since been annexed by Myanmar. At beginning of Qing Dynasty, she tried to stabilize general situation and did not want to go to war. Zhengmai and Mupan under Burma wanted to join Qing dynasty, but they all refused on grounds that "the barbarians belonged to Burma for a long time at end of Ming, so it is inconvenient to allow it." Later, Myanmar and countries of Indochina Peninsula expressed their surrender to Qing Dynasty, and power of Qing Dynasty in Southeast Asia reached its peak.
During Qianlong period, Qing Dynasty destroyed Dzungar Khanate and became powerful, so it became hard on Burma. In 10 years from 1765 to 1767, Qianlong sent troops to Burma three times, but all first three times failed. By time of fourth war, both Qing dynasty and Burma were unable to hold their own, and eventually both sides opted for peace negotiations. Although Qing Dynasty's war against Burma mostly ended in failure and suffered heavy losses, it regained chieftains' areas such as Mubang, Mengyang and Manmo and carried out expansion of territory.
During Qing Dynasty in Yunnan, measures were taken to "transform chiefs first, and then to suppress barbarians" and "make soil suitable for foreign land, not suitable for current, and direct course of river unsuitable for soil." Simply put, chieftains in Yunnan carried out reforms. The soil returned, but ataman of "foreign barbarians" did not change. Since “foreign barbarian” leaders did not carry out reforms to return lands, this also created a huge hidden danger. In 1852, British launched an invasion of Burma and soon reached Mupang region. In 1897, Britain and Qing dynasty signed "Sino-British Renewal of Treaty of Burma" and Mupang area was incorporated into British Burma. As a result, Han people in this area were renamed Kokang people, Chinese language was renamed Guoyu, and Chinese language was renamed Guowen.
Based on foregoing, original Yuan Dynasty once pushed its territory to periphery of Indian Ocean. Unfortunately, Ming Dynasty was unable to control area and was eventually unified by Taungoo Dynasty. The Toungoo Dynasty again fought Ming Dynasty, which greatly reduced size of Yunnan. After establishment of Qing Dynasty, areas such as Mubang were restored, but they were still occupied by British at end of period. So everyone can understand this clue more clearly.