At same time, Qing Dynasty was also trying to abolish unilateral MFN. In 1869, Qing Dynasty and Austro-Hungarian Empire signed Sino-Austrian Trade Treaty, which granted Austria most favored nation treatment, and Austria also granted corresponding treatment to China. Since then, China has signed similar treaties with Peru, Brazil, Sweden, Switzerland and other countries. In 1871, China and Japan finally signed "Sino-Japanese Amendment Treaty" after lengthy negotiations. The Qing Dynasty did not grant Japan MFN unilaterally. It was first equal treaty in history of China and Japan. In 1899, Wu Tingfan signed "Sino-Mexican Trade Treaty" with Mexico on behalf of Qing government, which was also an equality treaty.
In 1881, Zeng Jize and Russia signed Revised Treaty. This treaty is also first treaty to cancel former treaty and restore some of its sovereignty due to opposition from China.
In 1894, Sino-Japanese War broke out, and in 1895 both sides signed Treaty of Shimonoseki. Since then, China has become fish and meat divided by great powers, and China has fallen into a major national crisis. In 1900, Allied Forces of Eight Powers invaded China and forced Qing Dynasty to sign Treaty of Xin Zhou. Influenced by national crisis in China, movements such as Reformation, New Deal at end of Qing Dynasty, Democratic Revolution, and Boxer Rebellion arose. Stimulated by internal and external problems, Qing dynasty also made some attempts at modernization.
However, process of modernization of Qing Dynasty was very slow, far behind pace of times. Three thousand years of hard work have made China suffer. In 1911, Wuchang uprising broke out. In 1912, Qing dynasty fell. Throughout late Qing Dynasty, China endured many humiliations. However, we must also see that Qing Dynasty also tried to change this state.
Marx once said: Western colonists have a "double mission" in Asia. One of them is a destructive mission, that is, to destroy old society of Asian type; Society lays material foundation. These are not missions, but inevitability of historical development. China's years of lagging behind will inevitably face Western invasion, and Western invasion will inevitably harm China or stimulate China's development.