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Before Opium War, Lin Zexu wrote a letter to Queen of England, but it became a joke

1. Original text of letter

In 1839, Daoguang Emperor sent Lin Zexu to Guangdong to ban smoking. During anti-smoking campaign, Lin Zexu, Deng Tingzhen and other officials jointly wrote a letter to Britain's King Elizabeth. The initial text of email looks like this:

But my great emperor treats both Chinese and foreign countries equally, and if benefit is shared with world, then harm will be shared with world. Guy takes heart of heaven and earth for his heart. Your king was passed down from generation to generation, and they were all called obedient. Looking at previous tribute tables, he says: All foreigners coming to China for trade will treat emperor fairly and kindly. I am secretly happy that noble king understands righteousness and is grateful for mercy of heaven, He embraces heavenly judgment with gentleness and special courtesy. The benefits of trade will last for two hundred years. This country is known for being rich, and it's because of it.

It's just that business has been in business for a long time, and good and bad of barbarians are mixed, so there are those who captivate, lure Chinese people and even poison provinces. So, but knowing self-interest and neglecting harm to others, law of nature does not tolerate, and revolts all people. The great emperor was furious when he heard this. I sent this minister to Guangdong to investigate and resolve this governor's department, governor's department and governor's department. All interior dwellers who sell food should be executed. If barbarians are persecuted for years for crimes of human trafficking, it will bring great harm and profit, which should be punished by law. But thinking that all barbarians still know how to repent and ask for sincerity, they asked Consul Officer Yila to confiscate 2283 crates of barges and destroy them all. According to facts, ministers and others played scriptures. Fortunately, great emperor has given me additional favors, and those who surrender will be forgiven, and I will forgive them. It will be difficult for repeat offenders to borrow law over and over again and a new chapter will be created. Forgive your king for his love for Hua, and he will surely command all barbarians to scrupulously obey law. But you must know benefits and harms, and you must know laws of heaven, and you must necessarily obey them.

"All nations come to Korea"

The country is found to be between 60,000 and 70,000 miles from mainland, and barbarian boats compete for trade to make a profit. Using China's profits for benefit of foreign barbarians, all huge profits made by barbarians will be shared with Chinese. What reason can there be against using poison to harm Chinese people? In other words, Yi people may not have intention to harm, but they are extremely greedy for profit, regardless of harming others. I have heard that fasting in this country is very strict and I know it is harmful. If country is not affected, other countries cannot be affected, not to mention China?

There is nothing that China would do in foreign countries that would not benefit others. It's good to eat, good to use, and good to resell, all of which are profitable. Has anything in China hurt foreign countries? The situation is like rhubarb tea, which cannot be obtained in foreign countries in a day. If China takes advantage of its advantages but ignores its harm, how can barbarians survive? And abroad there is feather twill, which cannot be woven without Chinese silk. If China is also Jin Qili, what good will it do barbarians? The rest of food, from sugar, ginger and osmanthus, to use of things made of silk and satin china, there are countless things that are needed for abroad. And foreign things are just for fun, optional. Since this is not what China needs, why is it difficult to close market. These are tea and silk goods of Heavenly Dynasty that are allowed to be traded and distributed and cannot be cherished. Without him, world benefits. Goods brought by a country to mainland are not only consumed at their own expense, but can also be sold to other countries, with a threefold profit. That is, if you do not sell it, you can get three times more profit. How can you insatiably seek that which harms others? If people from other countries are sold to Britain to lure people into buying food, your king must hate and hate it.

King Xiang Wengui has a benevolent heart and refuses to do what he doesn't want to do to others. I also heard that all ships arriving in Guangdong have contracts, and there is a saying that prohibited items cannot be transported. This decree of your king is strict. Due to large number of merchant ships, it may not have been tested before. In this note, I know that heaven's prohibition is strict, and I will definitely make them commit no more crimes. And I heard that Langton, Sigalan, Ellen, etc., who are next to noble king, were not born at all. However, Indian places under its jurisdiction such as Mengala, Mandalasa, Mumbai, Padanamana and Marwa are planted in mountains and made in ponds. Tired menstrual years to thicken your poison. The smell is foul and sky is angry and gods are in danger. Your Majesty's King is realbut he can uproot all plants in these places, plow all land and replant five grains. Anyone who dares to try again will be severely punished. Such a beneficent government, really promoting good and eliminating evil, blessed by heaven and blessed by gods, prolonging life and giving birth to children and grandchildren, should be here.

When barbarian merchants came to mainland to eat and live, it was nothing but anointing of Heavenly Dynasty, and accumulation of abundance was nothing but joy of Heavenly Dynasty. His days in country are still few, but his days in eastern Guangdong are more. Bi teaches Ming punishment, ancient and modern. For example, when people from other countries come to Britain to trade, do they still have to abide by British laws, not to mention Celestial Empire? Let's take example of Chinese, seller dies, eater also dies. Think about it, if barbarians didn’t bring them, why would Chinese resell them or smoke them? It is treacherous barbarians who are actually trapping Chinese, how can they live alone? Who harms someone's life still has to pay for it with his life, what's more, if he harms someone, is it more than just life? Therefore, new law provides that barbarians brought into hinterland must be beheaded and hanged. This is so-called victimization for sake of peace.

In February of this year, according to law of consulate of country, ban was strict, and they asked for pardon. For Indian Port Areas please limit this to May and for UK mainland please limit this to October. Then follow language etc. with a new example. The current ministers and others have played role of great emperor of Mongolia, unusually merciful and sympathetic. Anyone who commits a misdemeanor within one year and six months, but is able to surrender and pay in full, will be released from punishment. If after time limit you still bring it, it is a deliberately committed crime, and you will practice Dharma, and you will never forgive it. It can be described as highest degree of benevolence and righteousness. My Heavenly Dynasty rules over ten thousand kingdoms full of unpredictable powers, but I cannot endure punishment without learning. Therefore, rules are clearly spelled out. If barbarian merchants in this country want to trade for a long time, they must abide by constitution, and source will be cut off forever, so don't test law for yourself. Wang Qi drove out traitors and eradicated evil spirits to protect country, took advantage of zeal of obedience and obedience, and shared blessing of world, very lucky, very lucky! After receiving this article, I will eliminate reasons for inscription, and quickly change answer, and do not delay.

Secondly, reaction caused by this letter in UK

In letter, Lin Zexu stood at height of "kingdom of heaven" and taught land of "barbarians". At same time, it also reflects Lin Zexu's concern forgadfly of repeated opium bans and harm to country and people, as well as their anger at moral decline of opium dealers and their self-serving behavior. Lin Zexu hoped that King of England would intervene morally. It also shows that Lin Zexu's arrogance is arrogant. He believes that Britain's prosperity is due to trade with China. If China prohibits trade, then Britain simply cannot survive.

Lin Zexu asked someone to deliver letter to England, but person who delivered letter was not allowed to meet queen, so letter never reached queen. In fact, at that time, a constitutional monarchy was practiced in Britain, and king was only a symbol, and actual power of Britain was in hands of parliament and cabinet. In May 1839, English version of this letter was published by China Cong Bao newspaper. After that, Western newspapers such as Guangzhou News and Sydney Commercial Daily published content of this letter one after another. commented, "This is a strange document that largely shows arrogance and pride of Qing government towards foreigners." These British newspapers published this article mainly for ridicule. "The British apparently don't think they're afraid of China at all."

An analysis by many British scientists, they believe: “This letter is in many ways an empty form and useless. However, for Chinese, their government pays a lot of attention to form and detail, and they will put it in an empty form. A formal victory is regarded as most important victory." Some scholars have already understood diplomatic form of China, i.e. China refers to another area called "barbarian". In fact, this is also true: only after Second Opium War, Qing dynasty arbitrarily called other countries barbarians and was forced to allow foreign ministers to be stationed in Beijing.

As a result, everyone knows that Qing Dynasty paid price for its arrogance. However, lesson was learned only after more than 100 years, and phenomenon of Chinese arrogance manifested itself again. Many people think that ancient Egypt, Mesopotamian civilization and European civilization are fake, and only Chinese civilization is true. If this continues, they may think that the Opium War is also a story fabricated by Westerners.

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