In 2003, American Public Broadcasting Company aired a television documentary called "Einstein's Wife" which indicated that not only Einstein had completed special relativity, but also his first wife, Mileva Marik.
In early 1990s, it was rumored that Mileva was real sage of couple, and it was even believed that Mileva did most of work on special relativity.
The Einstein Collected Works revealed that Einstein, who was still a student, discussed research work with Mileva in letters. Mileva financed Einstein while he looked for work until they married in 1903.
So, did Einstein complete special theory of relativity that shook theoretical foundations of classical physics? In addition to Mileva, have Einstein's special and general relativity plagiarized work of other scientists?01
Mileva Malik (1875-1948), born in Titra, Serbia (then part of Austro-Hungarian Empire), studied medicine at University of Zurich in Switzerland and then transferred to Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to study mathematics and physics, is only girl among five students studying theoretical physics in class of 1897, a talented student with amazing talent.
At Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Mileva met Einstein and they quickly fell in love. Through Einstein's love letters, we can also see side of this great scientist who is crazy about love, such as love letter he wrote to Mileva:
"How lucky I am to have found you, a being equal to me, as strong and independent as me! I would feel alone with anyone but you. …..here makes me feel like life really it makes sense if there can be a little bit of life in mind too, flesh and blood, that would be great!"
After that, they became inseparable, studying and discussing science together. During this process, Mileva often assisted Einstein in checking calculations and inquiring about data, but it is not known if she did work on special relativity. However, documents left by Einstein and records of correspondence between them hint that Mileva may have contributed to special relativity.
Letter from Einstein to Mileva in 1901:
"If I want to successfully perform relative movement, only you can help me. How happy and proud I am!"
In 1903, when they were married, Einstein said in his doctoral dissertation:
"I need a wife who can solve my math problems for me."
When Einstein proposed special relativity in 1905, Mileva proudly told her friends:
"We have done an important job, thanks to which my husband will become famous!"
Considering Mileva's help to Einstein and Einstein's special theory of relativity from their love to marriage, subsequent generations not unreasonably assume that "Mireva has completed some of work on special relativity."
However, John Stachel, director of Einstein Research Center at Boston University and editor of Einstein's Papers, believes that Mileva never played an important role in Einstein's creation of special relativity or a creative role:
Here we have a rather important letter from Einstein on electrodynamics of moving bodies (i.e. special relativity), and Mileva's answer talks mostly about trivial things, except for theory of relativity. It can be seen that Mileva, at best, simply listens to many of Einstein's ideas.
Surely this is just opinion of a family, a couple of honors students, who can be sure that Mileva never inspired or provided significant assistance to Einstein's special theory of relativity?02
If Mileva really contributed to special relativity and Einstein didn't sign it, it might just be housework. Moreover, Mileva did not dispute this until her death in 1948. But other cannot calm, so some still accuse Einstein of plagiarism.
In 1904, Dutch scientist Lorentz (see figure above) proposed "Lorentz transformation". In 1905, French scientist Henri Poincaré published a paper on "On Electrodynamics" before Einstein and realized for first time that Lorentz transformation represented a group. In 1905, Einstein also got same result as Poincaré's paper on creation of special theory of relativity.
To put it simply, Einstein's article on special relativity is very similar to part of Lorentz's article and Poincaré's article. The big problem is that: on one hand, Einstein paper is behind, Lorentz and Poincaré paper is ahead, and on other hand, there are no references in Einstein paper. Therefore, Einstein was accused of plagiarizing physical ideas of Lorentz and Poincare and did not provide references in order to hide source of related physical ideas.
In face of this accusation, Einstein stated that he read two men's papers before 1904, but did not read two men's papers after 1904, when he completed first paper on special relativity.
At same time, general relativity was also questioned for plagiarism.
In November 1915, Einstein made a splash when he published final version of his general theory of relativity. But then a harsh accusation followed. The reason is simple: German mathematician genius David Hilbert (pictured above) completed his general theory of relativity at least five days before Einstein completed it.
Due to apparent similarities in work of these two authors, each accuses other of plagiarism.
In 1915, famous German mathematician David Hilbert invited Einstein to give a series of lectures at University of Göttingen, where they discussed general theory of relativity. It should be noted that general relativity requires huge mathematical calculations, and in 1913 Einstein and Grossman, professor of mathematics at Swiss Institute of Technology, published an early version of general relativity, so general relativity was a cutting edge topic at time. can be explored and discussed.
Later, one of key reasons Einstein was given this honor was that Einstein introduced a new geometric model of space-time that gave theory of relativity a generalized covariant form, which is general relativity. equation in , which is missing from David Hilbert's article.
In short, in special relativity it's hard to tell if Einstein plagiarized, in general relativity Einstein's research is deeper and the theory is more solid and perfect. Bert doesn't have enough evidence.03
If Einstein still has controversy about academic plagiarism, then there is no controversy about his emotionally irresponsible image.
In 1900, Einstein and Mileva were inseparable, perhaps their love went to their heads, so that Einstein received an average mark on exam that year, and Mileva failed exam. When Mileva was preparing for her makeup exam, she became pregnant and had to drop out of school and return to her parents to have a baby. After that, Mileva gave birth to her first daughter, Lisa, but Einstein, who was still studying in Switzerland, never saw this daughter. No one knew about fate of Lisa. According to legend, under pressure from Einstein, Mileva put it up for adoption.
After Mileva married Einstein, they had two sons, but family did not survive. (Pictured below is Mileva and her two sons)
In 1912, while on a trip to Berlin, Germany, Einstein fell in love with his cousin Elsa Lowenthal. Two years later, Mileva prevented Einstein from working at Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences in Germany. Einstein was very annoyed by this and informed Mileva in writing that if he wanted to keep his marriage intact, he must do four things:
Article 1: "You must keep my clothes and bedding clean, that I eat three meals a day, that my workplace is clean and that my desk is not used by other people."p>
Second rule: "Give up all relations between us, except attending social events, especially do not let me stay at home with you, go out or travel with you."
Article 3: "When communicating with me, pay attention to following: do not expect me to be kind to you, do not get angry, if necessary, you must immediately stop talking to me while I ask, you must leave bedroom unconditionally or working room."
Article 4: "You must not despise me in words or actions in front of your children."
Eventually helpless Mileva returned to live in Switzerland, while Einstein lived in Berlin, and their marriage existed only in name. In 1919 they officially divorced. After that, Einstein rarely saw his two children. The youngest son, Edward, suffered from schizophrenia and died in a psychiatric hospital in 1965.
To cure Eduard, Mileva almost spent all her savings, and later she was left to earn a living only by teaching piano. In 1930s, after eldest son Hans Einstein (later a professor of hydraulic engineering at UC Berkeley) and his wife left for United States, Mileva remained in Switzerland to care for Edward. In 1948, semi-paralyzed Mileva died of a stroke and was finally buried in an unmarked grave in Zurich, while Eduard, left unattended, was sent to a psychiatric hospital. During this period, Einstein lived for a long time in Princeton, USA.
Einstein married Elsa (pictured above) shortly after his divorce from Mileva. But Einstein was not satisfied with this marriage. His score was:
"A marriage that was a failed attempt survived by some accident."
Since Elsa knows nothing about physics, his ex-wife Mileva can help him with his studies. The reason it can be kept is due to Elsa's "tolerance". Elsa allowed Einstein to have an affair and endured one "lone genius" scandal after another, so at least he didn't have to suck up and marriage between them could be saved.
After several years of marriage to Elsa, Einstein had an affair with a friend's niece, Betty Norman. In fact, whether in Berlin or US, Einstein never had a shortage of mistresses, but due to Elsa's tolerance, although Einstein was unhappy, he eventually saved marriage. After Elsa's death in 1936, Einstein did not remarry, but continued to have affairs with several women.
Looking back at Einstein's emotional life, he loves company of women, but every relationship is short-lived, passion comes quickly but fades quickly, intimacy has just been established, and he has already begun to grow cold. Some people noted that Einstein needed passionate love to stimulate his career, and at same time, in order to not be bound by feelings and provide independence and freedom he needed to continue his career, he quickly became indifferent to love.
In general, Einstein, who left his wife, daughter and son, was indeed very irresponsible emotionally in family.
As one of greatest scientists of 20th century, it's hard to find truth these days whether Einstein plagiarized or not, but in terms of Einstein's talent, plagiarism should be treated with disdain. But, on other hand, Einstein showed irresponsibility in emotional and family problems.
Perhaps so-called gold has no legs and no man is perfect. Einstein is not a god, but a man with a high IQ. If you look at him through eyes of ordinary people, you can see real Einstein.
Little people are not without greatness, and great people are not without smallness.