According to theory of origin of Africa, Homo erectus in Africa evolved into Homo sapiens (modern humans) 300,000 years ago. Between 15,000 and 16,000 years ago, some Homo sapiens in Siberia crossed Bering Strait for some special reason during last ice age. period (at this time sea level dropped, and land or ice roads connected America and Asia) and came to America and became America. The first ancient people on mainland.
However, modern archeology shows that as early as 16,000 years ago, or even 100,000 years ago, there must have been human traces in America. According to origins of Africa, America was an uninhabited barren land 16,000 years ago, but archeology has uncovered a number of earlier traces of ancient people. What's going on?
First of all: how did arrival of humans in Americas 130,000 years ago affect origin of Africa?
In 2017, journal Nature reported that in San Diego, southern California, archaeologists discovered location of 130,700-year-old humans.
In 1990s, archaeologists discovered a large number of paleontological fossils in San Diego, including extinct direwolves, sea otters, mastodons, and mammoths. At first, people did not associate it with a person, but simply thought that it was a paleontological fossil site, but later a special skeleton made one suspect that there were traces of a person in it.
On surface of leg bone of a male mastodon, fracture marks are a typical spiral fracture (see figure above), indicating that mastodon was hit before or shortly after death. More importantly, archaeologists have found stone hammers and stone anvils with obvious signs of use in place of fractured mastodon bones. Accordingly, Daniel Fisher, a paleontologist at University of Michigan, believes that these footprints most likely indicate existence of ancient people at that time.
To test this hypothesis, researchers simulated stone hammers and stone anvils and used them to conduct experiments on striking elephant leg bones and cow thighs with stone tools. The final results showed that morphology of impact marks was very similar to that found in mastodon fossils. Based on this, scientists also confirmed that as early as 130,000 years ago, ancient people came to American continent.
According to scientists, between 130,000 and 200,000 years ago there was an ice age, sea level fell, and Bering Strait turned into a land or ice road. During this period, ancient people were supposed to come to American continent. and hunting in San Diego, California.
More importantly, if ancient humans came to Americas 130,000 years ago, theory of origin of Africa may need to be partially rewritten, because time when African Homo sapiens migrated to Eurasia is recognized as 60,000 to 70,000 years ago . , appearance of ancient people in Americas 130,000 years ago can undoubtedly have an impact on traditional theory of African origin of modern man.
If Homo sapiens appeared in America at that time, then when did Sapiens in Africa go out into world, or are modern people generally not all of "African origin", but of "multi-regional origin"?
Of course, since no ancient human bones have been found, and relying solely on these stones and bones, it is not surprising that many questions have arisen.
Second: more than 21,000 years ago, another site of ancient people was discovered in United States
In 2009, at bottom of a dry lake in White Sands National Park, New Mexico, USA, archaeologists discovered thousands of human footprints mixed with animal footprints (see picture above), of which 60 were clearly visible.
Because of seeds left in footprints, scientists have confirmed that these footprints were left approximately 21,130 to 22,800 years ago. Some of footprints were smaller and were probably left by children and teenagers living during last ice age. Thus, researchers believe that humans may have reached Americas 30,000 years ago.
Despite fact that there are still voices of doubt, evidence shows that ancient people lived in America at least 21,000 years ago. Thus, time when African Homo sapiens migrated to all continents must be rewritten.
Thirdly, location of ancient people over 25,000 years old was discovered in Mexico
In Chiquivite cave in Astiero mountains in Mexico, archaeologists discovered about 2000 artifacts - stone tools (see one of them in picture above), 239 of which were buried in layers of sand and stone, no bones were found. Scientists suggest: perhaps, in harsh winter season, Chikivet cave was used as a refuge.
Carbon fourteen dating indicates that these stone tools may be between 25,000 and 32,000 years old. In other words, these stone tools appeared at least 15,000 years earlier than previously thought when people arrived in America.
So, how did they get to US, Mexico? Modern research shows that last ice age began about 70,000 years ago, ended 11,500 years ago, and peaked about 21,000 years ago, so many researchers suspect that after a group of ancient people from Siberia arrived in America through Bering Strait, they may have to bypass ice and sail along Pacific coast to California, Mexico and other places in US.
In addition to above, many archaeological discoveries in recent decades have shown that ancient people lived in America 30,000 years ago, and earliest of them date back 130,000 years ago.
As far as current archaeological discoveries are concerned, time when people arrived in America in past is bound to be rewritten, but this will affect whole body, which may also affect origin of Homo sapiens in Africa. The reason is simple: African Homo sapiens only spread 60,000 years ago and appeared in neighboring Europe only 45,000 years ago, so how did they cross ice sheet and reach America 30,000 years ago? Besides, if San Diego site is confirmed to be work of Homo sapiens, then theory of African ancestry will undoubtedly have to be rewritten.