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English Reformation

1558 was one of open wars between England and Scotland when death of Mary Tudor in November 1558 thwarted initial peace movement in October.

However, conflict not only affected Anglo-Scottish relations, but also in internal context of Scotland, as war interacted with more widely known factors such as accession of Elizabeth I, anti-French sentiment and Protestantism. preaching growth, creating conditions that made possible Reformation Rebellion of 1559.

The increase in mobility brought about by national military effort, combined with government's emphasis on national defense and national army's reliance on reformers, helped spread reform ideas and hampered authorities' ability to contain them. Thus, 1558 War of 1559 contributed to development of "heresy", which in 1559 grew into a full-scale religious rebellion.

April 30, 1558, Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland sent word of a cross-border raid to London, reporting that British attack on Scottish fortress of Langdon had been successful, and although Scottish commander had fled, about 100 Scots were killed and 400 more were taken prisoner by British.

Two days earlier, last Scottish Protestant martyr, Walter Milne, had been burned at stake. This event has long been recognized in attempts to explain Reformation uprising of 1559 as "cultivated sympathy for Protestants".

English Reformation

On contrary, although Scottish historians admit in passing that wars with England continued during this period, their extent, contours and impact have not been explored.

At same time, Franco-Spanish struggle on continent, where Anglo-Scottish wars took place, occupied a central place in British historiography, and influence of Anglo-Scottish conflict on events inside British Isles remained undeniable.

As we shall see, ongoing Anglo-Scottish War was a major conflict that created pressure within Scotland, and this pressure, like burning of Milne, contributed to growth of Reformed religion.

While Reformation uprising cannot be attributed to any single cause, debate on this topic has coalesced around relative importance of three areas.

First, anti-French sentiment and its impact on various aspects of the regime of Mary of Guise, who ruled on behalf of her absent daughter, Mary, Queen of Scots.

English Reformation

Secondly, increased activity of Reformers in 1558 was accompanied by an intensification of church's anti-heretical campaign, as evidenced by death of Milne in response to these new threats.

As both sides took firmer and more aggressive positions, compromise became impossible. After all, timing of Reformation uprising depended in part on changing international circumstances. Elizabeth Tudor was a Protestant of dubious legitimacy who came to throne in November 1557. . This opened up Mary, Queen of Scots, a descendant of Henry VII, whose legitimacy was absolutely undeniable, to claim English throne.

The realization that Scotland's ruling regime was completely occupied by war throughout 1558 sheds new light on set of events leading up to Reformation uprising and helps to explain why regents did not provide a Catholic hierarchy. Additional support and potential Protestant development.

Because this battle has not been previously studied, this article begins with an overview of Cateau Cambrai from Scottish refusal to invade English Fort Walker in October 1557 to formal end of Anglo-Scottish conflict on April 2, 1559. Events within 18 months after signing of Sith peace treaty.

English Reformation

Although violence was mostly limited to frontier, contemporaries feared that it could spread to invasions of Edinburgh and Berwick-upon-Tweed when Guise regime was actively engaged in necessary military arrangements.

In addition, Irish, French and Spanish events and individuals played a role in shaping conflict, reminding us that Anglo-Scottish battlefield was only part of a wider Habsburg-Valois struggle. One aspect and thus closely related to struggle of Habsburgs and Valois.

Evidence of a rise in thought and behavior, variously called "heresy" or "reform" by contemporaries of these military events, and Mary of Guise's reaction to these events, link ongoing Anglo-Scottish conflict. Provides a plausible explanation for spread of reform idea in 1558 and Guise's sometimes ambivalent behavior towards reformers.

The war allowed reformed ideas to spread, while at same time Gais was forced to rely on reformers in army, which, combined with need to oversee military operations, limited her strengths. The ability to interfere with heretics.

While Alec Riley believed that interrupted campaign of 1557 provided an opportunity for reform ideas to spread, larger and more protracted war of 1558 provided potential for a marked increase in reform activity following year, a compelling explanation. 6 In fact, Margaret Sanderson argues that in the early 1540s, "concern for war" prevented Cardinal Beaton from responding in time to George Wishart's threat of heresy.

English Reformation

The same factors are at work twelve years later. While connection between war and spread of reform ideas is generally well established, it must be emphasized that this is an "and" argument, not a "substitution" one: influence of Anglo-Scottish War of 1558 is more well-known causal factors of Scottish Reformation outlined above.

However, it's helpful to first figure out nature of conflict that's going on. According to Pamela Rich's account of this period, openly "official" cross-border violence between England and Scotland ceased in October 1557, when Scottish nobility settled with Mary, heir to Queen of Scots, Duke of Châtelguero, led by James Hamilton. follow instructions of regent Mary de Guise and invade British Fort Walker.

After this, according to Rich, "unofficial" war continued until 1558, although no "national army supplied with substantial decrees" was called in with some support from magnates. resumed in April.

The categories of "official" and "unofficial" war that Ridge currently uses are problematic, not least because they were not used by contemporaries, and it is not clear how they relate to experience of border conflicts in the sixteenth century. .

English Reformation

Violence on Anglo-Scottish border ranged from clashes between troops called in by monarch from all over kingdom and marching under royal banner, to cross-border attacks led by border guards, mostly against local residents. men, to incursions by groups of border guards who, in peacetime, can legally be pursued across border by "hot spots" and, if caught, face trial by a warden.

As we shall see, throughout 1558 Scottish army, summoned by crown of four parts of kingdom, remained on frontier with heavy edicts.

However, this army was not used for a large-scale invasion of England after Scottish nobles refused to invade Walker; rather, it remained a defensive force, although, as we shall see, Scots did consider a more massive invasion. In fact, this result was not unexpected, since Châteliero's refusal to invade England reflected a wider ambiguity among Scots about regent's right to invade another great power, and not just defend Scotland.

Since army called by Crown was a constant figure throughout conflict, instead of discussing "official" or otherwise nature of war of 1558, it is better to consider changing nature of conflict.

English Reformation

Modern chroniclers easily identify 1558 as one of Anglo-Scottish wars. Protestant polemicist George Buchanan observed that 1558 "seemed not to prefer peace to war", while reformist writer Robert Lindsay remembered it as year of "Great Dam".

On other side of religious spectrum, John Leslie, Catholic Bishop of Ross, recalled: "During this Hoyle symmetry, warris continowit was still betuix of France and Flanders, and of Scotland and England."

This estimate is fully supported by contemporary letters and evidence of expenditure by Scottish crown, extracted from treasurer's accounts. Moreover, border is not only place where Anglo-Scottish violence occurs. From moment England declared war on France in June 1557, they believed that Ireland should also be prepared for a possible Scottish attack.

The most provocative character on this side of conflict is James MacDonald, or MacDonald of Dannewager and Glens (d. 1565), better known as Thorley Boy. His older brother was head of MacDonald family at time.

From failed Siege of Walker in October 1557 to January 1558 hostilities were ongoing. Cross-border raids and attempts to enlist services of subjects from abroad continued on both sides until mid-January.

In early January, arrival of French ships in Scotland caused consternation among British officials, but by end of month, Anglo-Soviet peace negotiations began. 15 By 23 January, Scots approached British border guards to discuss possibility of peace and agreed to a temporary truce or abstention.

English Reformation

In meantime, Guise appointed William Maitland of Lexington as Ambassador to UK, apparently with intention of negotiating a more permanent agreement.

However, Mary Tudor is not convinced that Scots are negotiating in good faith, and although Guise continued to express her desire for peace in February, British cynicism is well founded.

Over course of a month, Scots fortified Eyemouth (known in modern sources as Heymouth or Eyemouth), one of their main frontier strongholds, moved heavy artillery across border, and fortified port of Aberdeen to prevent a potential British invasion from sea. , issued a proclamation directing all persons between ages of sixteen and sixty to be ready for combat on 24-hour warning, build beacons to be lit in event of an invasion, and prepare to provide for French troops stationed on frontier. .

In short, Scots used temporary truce to carefully prepare for war. Not surprisingly, given this military activity, some Scots invaded across border and had to be ordered to hold themselves back until truce expired on 15 March.

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