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Swedish Ambassador in Madrid: Triple Alliance between Sweden and France

1667, Sweden sent an ambassador to Madrid, Karl Tanger in Aachen following year. Upon arrival, Spain promised to pay subsidies to guarantor countries (including Sweden), and Count Fernand Nunez came to Sweden as ambassador to solve problem of subsidies and promote trade.

The Swedes, according to Ambassador of Spain, in medium term do not recognize and do not exclude that Sweden is in an ambiguous position, on one hand it has a triple alliance with England and states. On other hand, he has strong ties with France. In end, Spaniards would prefer to support Sweden.

The Eighteenth Century Both countries experienced fundamental changes with centralization of state during Bourbon period in Spain and virtual takeover of country by so-called "free era" parliament in Sweden. Due to wars between two countries in seventeenth century and in first twenty years of eighteenth century, they lost their status on international stage and became second-class countries.

Swedish Ambassador in Madrid: Triple Alliance between Sweden and France

All this is reflected in level of exchange of diplomatic representatives, which shows that two countries at that time attached less importance to relations between two countries.

Cooperation between two countries has improved since mid-twentieth century due to Barr piracy problem in Mediterranean, which caused Sweden to send its naval ships to fight them. In general, relations between two countries are very good, but diplomatic interests of Spain have pushed Sweden to take side of France in international conflicts, which is also opinion of most Scandinavian countries.

1749, Marquis Grimaldi arrived in Sweden and together with Charles III's secretary of state offered to conclude a trade treaty and military negotiations with Sweden, which seemed unfavorable for Spain, since time of Marquis of Puerto Rico's influence.

Meanwhile, Spanish ambassador to Sweden, Marquis of Puentefort, has been sent to try to prevent Sweden from approaching Mary, which Teresa of Austria might do. The real emperor.

Swedish Ambassador in Madrid: Triple Alliance between Sweden and France

Some Swedish businessmen settled in Cadiz, who needed a Swedish ambassador in Madrid to ensure their interests. The first permanent ambassador to Spanish capital was Peter Axel Fleming, who was appointed in 1741, and from reports he sent to Sweden it appears that Swedish interests in Spain at that time were predominantly commercial. .

It is not for nothing that famous Swedish East India Company used port of Cadiz as a base for all its operations with other countries, especially with Puerto Rico.

Since 1761 main function of Spanish Ambassador was to "remind Spain of its existence" and collect information about political organizations, as did Swedish Ambassador in Madrid, cultural and commercial ties between two countries have also strengthened, and relations are gradually normalizing.

Swedish Ambassador in Madrid: Triple Alliance between Sweden and France

There are surprisingly few reports of diplomatic relations between Spain and Sweden in 19th century. Some reports say : "In Sweden she also maintains friendly relations with Spain, which have not been interrupted since signing of peace treaty in Stockholm on March 19, 1813."

Among them, Sweden, by means of aforementioned treaty, explicitly recognizes court of Cadiz and constitution promulgated by it as a model for other great powers in this dangerous conflict. Later on April 26, 1841 subjects of Sweden and Spain purchased from each other property between two countries, not content with any other rights, as Spain had negotiated with other countries.

A Spanish business manager based in Stockholm, who is also a Swedish court, has a diplomatic agent of same nature in Madrid.

Swedish Ambassador in Madrid: Triple Alliance between Sweden and France

1From 813 to 1815 The Swedish aristocrat Jacob Gustaf Delagardie () was ambassador to Madrid from 1812. Relations with Spain until 1813 were so important that conflicts during Napoleonic Wars led to recall of Swedish ambassador in Madrid.

In 1806 and 1810, Sweden appointed Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte heir to throne, appointed Adlerberg as Napoleon's former marshal and then his enemy. The other side joined Anti-Napoleonic League. and thus became an ally of Spain. The result was a treaty of peace and friendship between Sweden and Spain in 1813.

1815 He was appointed by Swedish merchant in Madrid, Gustav Daniel Roerich, a position he held no less than before, and Roerich was apparently occupied by elected Elizabethan party.

Swedish Ambassador in Madrid: Triple Alliance between Sweden and France

Later, there were quite a few Norwegians among Swedish ambassadors in Madrid in 19th century. Indeed, remarkable at time was Norway's dominance of diplomatic service in personal alliance with Swedish-Norwegian diplomats from 1815 to 1905.

One of memoirs Wedel Jarlsberg (WedelJarlsberp) describes life of a diplomat of that time well: "Before Akuf, we basically followed work of Berndt Frederiksson as ambassador to Sweden."

To allow study to go directly from pre-1914 ambassadors to 1940s, however incomprehensibly silent at first glance, is yet another reason to support importance and necessity of his detailed study of Spanish. Simply put, there is an important historical hole in Swedish interwar relations.

Swedish Ambassador in Madrid: Triple Alliance between Sweden and France

Spain is said to have re-entered country since first third of 19th century, suppressing foreign policy, due to crisis of war and political instability, critical economic situation and American colonial losses, international relations have also changed .

1833 The idea of ​​Europeanism will enter Spain, balance of power, need for an international order, neutrality will become ideals of foreign policy, and colonies must be saved to keep peace.

Authors of contemporary Spanish history of international relations, such as Martinez Carreras, Pereira Castanares, Sec Serrano, Dussel Gómez, Nila Hernandez and others discussed so-called changes in Spain and isolated themes of 19th and 20th centuries before and on international stage.

Swedish Ambassador in Madrid: Triple Alliance between Sweden and France

Hambastian Balfour and Paul Preston, who point to Spanish crisis and civil war as concrete forms of a more global European crisis. As stated in The Tower:Between 1875 and 1914, Spanish foreign policy evolved through three main processes that transformed international merchant system of those years and that of Bismarck.

The colonial redistribution in 1990s and formation of Franco-British Entente and bipolar system before First World War changed accordingly.

On other hand, bipolarity of international system and rise of capitalism in Spain during interwar period, which brought country closer to advanced countries of Europe, helped to give Spanish foreign policy a certain "Autonomy".

Swedish Ambassador in Madrid: Triple Alliance between Sweden and France

While territorial integrity of Spain or its last colonies was not in doubt, King Alfonso XII advocated neutrality, and many felt that he lacked a clear vision of foreign policy and was hampered by internal problems.

Nineteenth and twentieth centuriesSpain's foreign policy basically harmonized concept and aspirations of "Europeanization", in which relations between Sweden and Spain could play a more leading role, i.e. most important neutral country in world war can be called "Great Periphery".

In League of Nations these conditions must be formulated. I think that Abdul Kerim's aggression in Morocco is surprising in context of Spanish dictator's policy of reconciliation with Thalia, at a time when control over Western Mediterranean has an international dimension, and not in Spain or Sweden. historiography.

Swedish Ambassador in Madrid: Triple Alliance between Sweden and France

The trade agreement between Sweden and Spain in 1928, as well as official visit of Spanish king to Sweden and Sweden to Spain are also little mentioned in Bible, and residence of Alfonso XIII in Sweden is almost unknown. Yes, he, as a guest of Gustav V, founded New Republic in summer of 1931.

The emergence of Republic was a marked break with traditional Spanish institutions, and its implications in terms of politics and diplomatic relations usually took a long time to show up in practice. However, this is more "covert" than "secret" diplomacy, a change based on "psychology of dialogue".

Undoubtedly, Second Republic accepted challenge of giving Spain a leading role abroad in terms of reform, based on fundamental principle, as Professor Nila Hernandez said, that ideals of peace and re-establishment of neutrality as core of foreign policy.

Swedish Ambassador in Madrid: Triple Alliance between Sweden and France

Researchers agree that this is not an original and not even a very specific approach, since there is no official theory of neutrality of Republic.

Egido León calls this foreign policy a strategy of "positive neutrality", and in my opinion, it applies perfectly to foreign policy of Spain and Sweden.

The historical development and role of Spain in two world wars is well known to Spanish readers. Of its three pillars Dictatorship, Republic and Civil War goes without saying, albeit modestly, although it is necessary to outline history of Sweden and its special role in international arena, but especially in Europe, from 1900 to 1930. Ni changed a lot.

Swedish Ambassador in Madrid: Triple Alliance between Sweden and France
The period

1905-1920 was marked by final establishment of democracy and parliamentarism in country, and after secession of Norway in 1905, Swedish liberal government could focus on domestic issues, especially organizational and defense spending and issue of political representation which would lead to universal male suffrage in 1909, women's rights did not come until 1921.

The beginning of century was also a time of major reforms, with the creation of Supreme Administrative Court, modernization of tax system and commercial law, and introduction of civil marriage In a broader sense, social contradictions were particularly evident during 1909 general strike, and 1911 elections showed evolution that Sweden was undergoing.

The transition from liberal system to democracy was a victory for liberals and a huge success for social democrats as conservatives lost power.

Swedish Ambassador in Madrid: Triple Alliance between Sweden and France

One of most important moments in this evolution was question of defence, when a divided parliament provoked dissatisfaction in large sections of Swedish society with a policy of delaying rearmament of army, which eventually led to mass demonstrations. .

February 6, 1914 Protests by Swedish peasants in Stockholm provoked a major political crisis and sparked protests against liberal system and role of monarch as arbiter of politics. This finally opened door for establishment of democracy.

When World War broke out, Sweden remained neutral, and Pavs's traditional ties with Germany were severely tested, which immediately led to a governmental and technological crisis. A cabinet was formed with Hamar Hamaskolid as prime minister, and due to war, this proxy government continued to exercise these powers throughout much of conflict.

Swedish Ambassador in Madrid: Triple Alliance between Sweden and France

There were many problems, from food shortages, which created serious social tension, to clashes between demonstrators and law enforcement officers in protest against rationing and confiscation of farm land.

The parliamentary elections of 1917 resulted in victory of Social Democrats and Liberals, who formed a coalition government whose overall goal was a fully democratic electoral system, by which time municipal elections were especially severely limited in popularity.

The inauguration of a new government with Eden as prime minister and Halmar Blanting as finance minister on October 19, 1917 is considered last settlement of parliamentary democracy in Swedish history. Finally, in May 1919, a new government law was passed and new constitutional provisions (universal suffrage) and labor standards were finalized.

Swedish Ambassador in Madrid: Triple Alliance between Sweden and France

1920, Sweden joined League of Nations, Social Democrats led government for first time, Sweden from 1920 to 1932 is known as "Parliamentary Age of Minorities", characterized by nine successive weak governments without parliamentary majority powers, frequent government crises, and a full eleven presidential governments in twelve years.

The cultural atmosphere in Sweden is strongly pacifist. The question of organization of national defense stands apart. Of particular importance is also legislation on education and labor relations. Faced with a number of challenges, Sweden still has many challenges to overcome in future.


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