In first half of 1935 Spanish courts discussed foreign policy of Republic, while reports from Sweden were very harsh, in short, Spain was not interested in this in interests of European politics, but had to be aware of approach of France and Italy, which would jeopardize interests of Spain in Mediterranean.
May 1935 The Spanish Minister of State announced that Spain would consult on issues affecting security in region. Count de Romanos questioned position of Spanish Republic in international politics, which caused a new round of debate in court.
The focus is on Mediterranean question(regarding validity of Cartagena Agreement of 1907) and Malokov question(regarding government's plans for a possible reform of Tangier Statute)strong>.
The Secretary of State replied that Cartagena Agreement was still in effect, that Spain should work with United Kingdom to secure Mediterranean, and that France and Italy recognized that The Statute of Tangier Spain had had a hard time, but not now time to propose reforms.
On other hand, Spain has been called upon to play a role in League of Nations and South American Republic. According to delegation, it can learn from “reliable sources” that Franco-Italian relations are straining Spanish government, which does not know extent of agreement reached and is ready to take steps to strengthen Balearic Islands< /strong>.
In 1935 there were two international conflicts, which were reflected in diplomatic documents of Sweden and Spain, as each side wanted to know position of other on this issue. positions, they again refer to conflicts in Chaco (Paraguay-Bolivia) and in Abyssinia (Italy-Ethiopia) in Swedish-Spanish bilateral relations.
Regarding conflict in Chaco, Spanish minister in Stockholm wondered what position Sweden would take and raised issue in two conversations with Swedish foreign minister, although he said Sweden's position was "easily in line with Spain's" » , but truth is, Sandler didn't know what to expect.
Because Spanish diplomat apparently did not receive a detailed report from his government on position of republic.
Regarding Spain's position in Abyssinian conflict, Danielson explained that it was neutral but did not expose itself to Great Powers involved: Italy and Great Britain.
This position is defended by Minister of War Gil Robles. Spain, preferring not to provoke Italy, decided to support sanctions against her in League of Nations, especially those proposed by Sweden, although if forced to do so. in order to uphold Social Pact Spain would agree to such a measure.
In addition to official position, Swedish representation also collected information that prevails in Spanish public opinion. The Catholic media mostly defended Italy and accused UK of "selfish" behavior. left forces Although "in his statement in a more moderate form" expresses his readiness.
But other side issued a statement in support of sanctions against Italy. Spanish ministers spoke to Sandler in Stockholm, to which Swedish Foreign Minister stated that Spanish government had withdrawn its support from Portugal in order to have a representative in so-called Committee of Five and refused to support Madariaga. from voting on sanctions means supporting Italy.
In end, Spain decided to ban arms exports to Italy, but according to Danielsson, this situation was previously very tense in Madrid government circles, and possibility that Spain could be involved in Anglo -Italian armed conflict was most likely Great, as Mada Rica said:"It's like parable of lion and lamb: as soon as first eats second, peace will be made."
It can be concluded that Swedish diplomacy had little interest in foreign policy of Spanish Republic. When it does, it refers to Morocco and Mediterranean, or highlights interest in Europe and lack of specificity in foreign policy.
In fact, according to minutes of meetings of Swedish diplomatic corps and Swedish Foreign Minister with Spanish diplomats in Stockholm, Spanish representatives frequently referred to neutralism and pacifism. strong> strong>Republic policy, but does not detail specific conflict situations such as Italo-French struggle in Mediterranean, Abyssinian Anglo-Italians, etc.
This does not seem surprising, since it fits perfectly into lines articulated in modern Spanish studies of international relations, high culture of this race, which made it aware of its role in national consciousness and Scandinavian civilization.
In contrast to continuity of Swedish diplomatic mission in Madrid, Spanish mission in Stockholm is not continuous, this applies to both head of mission and senior junior staff, and reflects general situation in Spain.
Between 1931 and 1936 Spanish minister in Sweden was quickly replaced by Pedro García Conde led by Julio López Oliván and Alfonso Fiskovich will play this role. In addition, during Olivan's tenure as head of mission, he had to combine this position with other important diplomatic assignments.
For example, he led World Economic Conference in London and Spanish delegation, which led to his frequent absence from meeting in Stockholm, followed by Jose Fernandez Villaverde as chargé d'affaires, same things also were to be replaced by Jose González de Gregorio before Pedro Garcia Conde.
As regards junior Spanish diplomatic staff in Sweden, 1931 offered some rather complex measures, with several newly appointed honorary vice-consuls among them Helsing and professional consuls who were transferred from consul in Oslo to capital Gothenburg. , Stockholm vice-consul resigns.
The following year Gothenburg consulate experienced irregularities and asked federal government to fire them. January 10, 1931, Count Pedro Garcia, last Minister of Spanish Monarchy in Sweden, a diplomat who will be assigned to represent both Spanish governments. Served in Sweden in service of His Majesty King Alfonso XI and Provisional Government of Spanish Republic.
After change of regime, Garcia and Conte resigned by telegram April 18, and April 21 Alejandro and Le. withdraw his resignation, citing only delicate reasons, not incompatibility with new system.
Pedro García Conde was a newcomer, and after creation of Spanish Republic, his reports indicated that he had confidence of Foreign Minister Luis de Zuluaga, who reflected results of his administration in Sweden. in his numerous reports in Madrid as head of Spanish mission in Stockholm.
The report leaves traces in primary sources, such as correspondence of Ministry of Foreign Affairs with Spanish missions abroad, but nothing else, unfortunately, almost all of which correspond to 1931 and 1932 The Russian archives are almost all lost, managed to find only a few of them.
Fortunately, a telegram from a suicide note sent from Stockholm to State Department survives, which may fill some of these gaps in information.
On completion of his mission in Stockholm, Pedro García Conde was awarded Order of Sweden, also known as Polar Star and Grand Cross.
In 1932 Government of Republic appointed an important figure in Spanish diplomatic circles Julio López Oliván as Minister Plenipotentiary of Sweden. His operations in Sweden will be intense. and productive, but after two years he would leave his post to start Spain's diplomatic campaign in Bern.
He was succeeded by Alfonso Fiskovich, who in his post in Stockholm was taken by surprise by July 1936 coup, shortly thereafter, out of loyalty to government by republic, he began to disavow Fiskovich, chairman of legation in Stockholm, to take over under difficult conditions.
As for Republican intellectual Isabelle Oyazabal Smith, who changed his name to Isabelle Palencia, he had to start preparations to start his predecessor's forced eviction lawsuit, and case was collected as one of key events in Sweden.
The addition of Alfonso Fiskovitch does not change general tone of relations with Sweden, nor diplomatic presentation to Spanish government. In late July of same year, Fiskovich did not hesitate to send official documents from mission to Swedish authorities, stating that cruise ship belonged to a pirate ship in hands of rebels.
From moment he decided to refuse to join Government of Republic, he changed course and tone, August 1936 when Fiskovich adopted Franco's rhetoric in Spain, after Spanish War, Count Torrata was appointed plenipotentiary Minister of Sweden, after spending several months as a proxy in Stockholm.Study of
Jose de Landjo and Allende Salazar of lower ranks of Spanish Legion, as well as Spanish trade in other Swedish cities and employees of honorary consulate.
In general, with very few exceptions (eg consulate in Gothenburg), this is limited to administrative and procedural aspects of mail, relations between Sweden and Spain, or Spain in Swedish view of reality is ineffective. Instead, they will play an important role after Swedish Legion in Madrid starts a civil war.
What did Spanish representative in Sweden say to Government of Republic? What worries Spanish government ministry most? Finally, in Stockholm, Spanish ministers communicated to government their vision of Swedish reality, which we will continue to analyze on following basis.
We first analyze situation in Sweden before Social Democratic Party came to power in 1932. We then analyze situation from 1932 to 1936. politics before Social Democratic Party came to power.
1920s Swedish political life was centered on two fronts: on one hand, demand for freedom, ideal of disarmament both at home and in foreign policy. On other hand, laying foundations for an emerging welfare state under Salz Accord would put an end to so-called Swedish model.
1929The international economic crisis soon affected Sweden, and 1930 also caused a national crisis. Swedish export companies were particularly affected, unemployment rose, balance of payments weakened, competition with UK for world markets intensified, and when UK abandoned gold standard, Sweden immediately began to imitate it.
As a result, Swedish currency is more dependent on pound sterling and, in addition, they seek closer political rapprochement with UK.
As Spanish diplomats in Stockholm saw this period, first of all it should be noted that there is a problem with documentation, since most of material is lost or not stored, so we do not know Spanish mission in Stockholm in 1931.< /strong> Continuation of current political and economic situation in Sweden.
First half of 1932 Only two of five letters sent by mission regarding Sweden's economic problems have survived, as have reports on Swedish foreign policy agreement, of which only one remains although we know that he also briefed Secretary of State on a wide range of issues.
ExampleSwedish accession to Ministry of Interior, February meeting in a cafe, Swedish and British agreement on civil procedure, exchange of letters between Sweden and Romania, proposed amendments to Tangier Statute by Lithuania and Germany, trade and taxes in Zujla treaty, agreements with Greece and Turkey, Sweden's ratification of Berne Convention, Iceland's tax treaty.
Unfortunately, vast majority of information about political situation in Sweden in 1931 was also lost, no one saw reports of Swedish municipal elections, nor did they see any posts commenting on Sweden's reaction to new Spanish constitution, This is one of special concerns of Government of Spanish Republic.
"History of development of Sweden"
The Primacy of Politics: Social Democracy and Rise of 20th Century in Europe
Constitution and public law