These topics are usually intertwined in letters sent by Spaniards to Stockholm, which is not surprising since they overlap in time. In a way, in this exhibition we follow a theme, not a timeline. In fact, already in beginning of May 1931 all these aspects came to light.
Danielsson writes that young republican government is very active, stressing that potential conflict with government has eased a bit, electoral and military reforms are being carried out, and reforms are deliberate, there were 300 generals in Spain and 22,000 officers, as well as an army of 150,000 men.
However, due to Cardinal Sigora's statement in favor of Alfonso XIII and tensions with Catholic Church, he expressed Spain's concern. Monarchists declared that in carrying out their civic duties they must renounce their people.
The events of mid-May 1931, burning of church and declaration of a state of siege are described in detail. Danielson, according to him, some Danielson said that riots in Madrid were provoked by “the provocations of monarchist youth” and demonstrated “radical tendencies triumphed over wisest tendencies”.
The Swedish diplomat was extremely critical of passivity of government, he did not hesitate to attribute what had happened to premeditated political motives, found hypothesis of a monarchist conspiracy implausible and considered it passivity, at first position taken by government towards fanatical attacks of masses on church may be a strategy adopted by government so as not to lose touch with masses.
Speech by one of Danielson's colleagues on Republic Day, saying:"The Spanish Republic has been established, and then Spaniards will lead revolution that threatens to become a reality." strong
The ensuing harsh reaction from government and people was not enough to change mind of Swedish minister plenipotentiary in Madrid, who wrote to his government on May 17:“It is difficult to get rid of popular attacks on church buildings. This is done with approval, at least this part of government."
The bill, in fact, touches on two main points of new republican platform: the question of threat, on one hand, and question of separation of church and state, secondly. To prove his point, Danielson told him that convent and nuns should leave their posts, and they obediently left Spain.
The Swedish Consul in Cadiz provided him with reports of attacks on monasteries and churches in city, according to which military wanted to intervene in face of police action without permission of civilian governors, only when monastery was looted and burned did he hand over power to military governor.
The Swedish legation in Madrid is very concerned with religious issues such as burning of monastery, separation of church and state, and refusal to grant Zuluetta universal access to Lasseter's Vatican, resulting in opposition from cardinal at head of republic, through various mass demonstrations, etc.
In this regard, Danielson expressed doubts about possibility of resolving these issues without a complete break with Vatican, expressing concern that religious issues could become a serious scourge for Spain. Given this aspect, religious fanaticism is characteristic of a significant part of Spanish population, and on other hand, intensity of emotions is largely caused by tactics of left-wing media attacking old regime. .
Shortly thereafter, Danielson announced a crisis in government, and Alcazar Zamora also decided to resign as he could not take action taken by courts in accordance with Articles 3 and 24 of New Constitution. , regarding separation of church and state, prohibition of religious persons from teaching, repression of Jesuits and nationalization of their property, which will lead to a radical transformation of Spanish economy.
As banks and power plants invested heavily in railroads, a clergy movement began to take shape, and bishops hinted that they might urge Catholics to disobey administration, all of whom supported Protestantism in Spain.
On other hand, he continued to attract attention of Swedish diplomats, and when he congratulated Alcala Zamora on his appointment as President of Republic, ambassador boasted of work of Church, his respect for priesthood. He was also surprised by argument that officers were trying to avoid disbandment, which he considered to be "typically Jewish behaviour". As a result, Jesuits lost support even among Catholics.
He is afraid of Danielson, however religious issues have serious implications as Azania stated in a parliamentary debate that Spain is no longer Catholic, this is wrong, vast majority of Spaniards retain their deep religion and willingness to go to any lengths sacrifices in defense of cause of Catholic Church. However, sanity prevails and problems are resolved without taking things to extreme.
A new law on religious associations has finally come into force, and a mission has been sent to Stockholm to publish French translation and related commentaries. Danielson argued that in no other issue did new Spanish regime leave such a clear mark on revolution as in religion, and was surprised by short-term agreement to transfer education to civil power.
This could cause serious problems as 700,000 children may not go to school if no one replaces religious people. There was a lot of anger in Catholic milieu: Bishops spoke of excommunication and even Pope criticized law, which also reported on religious demonstrations on streets of Spain.
Socialists and Republicans chanted "Christ has come!" and sided with government against Catholics, which Swedish diplomats said was dangerous, especially given religious fanaticism of some people.
The Swedish delegation raised this issue again in their report to Azania cabinet in 1933, official version of which was disagreement underlying government reorganization crisis, which they argued that all sources could not agree on from - for tension between Azania and Alcala Zamora regarding law on religious communities.
It is worth noting that Paves, traditional Protestant denomination of diplomats, were alarmed by not-so-positive image of Catholic Church, which saw radical secularization practiced by Second Spanish Republic from outset of politics.
Danielsson has mentioned Constituent Assembly elections several times, and in an important secret document at end of June, he believes that "election riots" are happening everywhere. in country Continues, especially on left, and due to "increasing aggressiveness of extremist groups", in some places, especially in Andalusia, they are carrying out a "terror policy" >.
Everything seems to indicate that Republican Socialist Alliance will remain in power, and Danielson angrily declares that if elections do not bring desired results, current government will be replaced by a Republican dictatorship with Le Roux as dictator. while political discussion is welcome, Danielson believes election can be held in relative calm.
It did happen, a sharp shift to left gave a large part of political class and led to a "policy of persecution of supporters of old regime." The elections were held "in relative peace" and draft constitution would be based on that of France.
Similarly, opening of court held elections "calmly and with dignity", and Danielsson completely crushed extremists, despite "Spanish working class extremists" who opposed republic. The result was positive, and Swedish diplomats were very concerned about lack of clarity in distribution of political power in constitutional court.
Danielsson repeatedly criticized lack of democratic spirit of new republican regime, October 1931, he notified government, cabinet of Azania, of National Defense Law of Republic, inspired by similar laws in Germany, that they, < strong>possessing dictatorial power, they see president as "a man of great energy and indisputable authority, as evidenced by military reforms."
The development of events demanded, no doubt, need for a firm and effective leader in leadership of government, and in April 1932 he again emphasized this issue when Asania received "an acquittal by a majority vote of House of Representatives." , often an arbitrary result, under Republic Defense Act to act against opponents of regime", insisting that government has "dictatorial powers".
Danielson has commented in a similar way before, with barely concealed displeasure and surprise, that Provisional Government of Republic is trying to resolve all-important issue of Pavez in a completely authoritarian manner before election of Cortés.
Danielson also criticized attitude of those who threatened violent measures - and therefore anti-democratic measures - before Alcala Zamora, when reform efforts in Spanish Parliament were blocked. Only after being appointed president of republic does Swedish minister praise intransigence of Spanish Socialist Party.
As for Constitution, after promptly notifying editors, Danielsen sharply stated that it has extremely radical features, which is an expression of will of radical socialists. , Sweden Diplomats called it a "clearly radical work" or "democratic constitution", it contained very radical elements, and it was clear that Danielson did not like text of constitution.
As for new government in Azania, I thought that although it did not officially declare it, in fact it meant end of agreement between republicans, the same budgetary priorities, land reform, subconstitutional and electoral laws of Catalonia, and in accordance with laws on divorce, secularization of cemeteries, and local administrative reforms.
Danielsson has made no secret of his concern about danger to democratic nature of Republic, and there are rumors that something serious is about to happen and that moderates will have a concerted plan to try to break left's political strength , this movement is not for restoration of monarchy, but for restoration of identity of republic, respect for various political views and hope that actions of right will play a role in presidential elections.
There is no doubt that a nationwide backlash against political and social lines imposed by authorities is beginning to emerge. Beginning in January 1932, new republic, horrors of previous months were toned down in mission's report on Spanish politics, and on anniversary of republic, Danielson claims monarchy. The danger of recovery has passed, and Republic of Left is at greater risk.
This is revolutionary in eyes of conservative reactionaries and conservative in eyes of leftist anarchists. He “a person close to leader of Radical Party” as a source said: “I am ready to use direct revolutionary methods to seize power if I need to, and with those who oppose coup. The officer is no stranger to possibility of collusion.”
During summer of 1931 Stockholm received diplomatic reports that still mentioned possibility of a military coup, in January 1932 this fear increased after public unrest when Danielson clarified words of General Sanzuho, whose loyalty to Republican cause was called into question.
In fact, back in 1931, Danielson sent a confidential letter about his rumors of a possible military coup to restore dictatorship. According to these rumors, generals threatened that if government could not guarantee order, they would lead a new military dictatorship in this regard.
A Swedish diplomat said:"While information is incredible, given example of Spain's political history, be prepared for anything."
This kind of speech will be back on topic in a few months. Some say that "sound of swords" is already audible, that turmoil is inevitable, and military assistance after adoption of Constitution Rumors of a coup could restore dictatorship. However, given current situation, a possible coup could move National Party even further to left.
"Bloody Sands: Spanish Civil War"
"Civilization and power"