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Close connection between European ideological emancipation and colonial culture

When colonialism and colonization are again seen as milestones of humanity, not affecting civilization or culture, history is also constant, settlements founded by Greeks in antiquity, and imperialism in nineteenth and twentieth centuries. There is no difference between latter, which killed millions in Africa and elsewhere, yet violence and its consequences have been condemned by human rights groups.

From 26 to 27 June 1926, human rights organizations held an international conference in Brussels on theme "European Union". Among representatives of French Congress was famous historian of French Revolution, Alphonse Alphonse Olard, who gives a brief overview of history of idea of ​​the European Union.

Alphonse Olard's remarks follow a classic history of thought that begins with Claude-Henri-Saint-Simon (1814) in his Discourse on Transformation of European Society, followed by pacifist Charles Lemonnier in his 1872 essay Les Etats-Unis d'Europe, which he called a literate student of Lauder-Henri Saint-Simon. Saint-Simon shaped idea of ​​the League of Nations, while Lemonnier defined role of European economy.

Oralde dedicates a special section to poet Victor Hugo, whose commitment to idea of ​​European Union continued from mid-nineteenth century until end of his life.

Oral concluded:"Our congress will follow tradition, not poetry, realism practiced in Montrant, showing necessity and possibility of unity of European countries."

Therefore, not only a tradition of poetry, but also of realism, in order to show by practical means necessity and possibility of a European Union, an idea that Orard, in spirit of French model of civilization, included in European tradition.

The theme of Belgian Parliament in 1934 was "Declaration of Rights of Man, Citizenship and International Law and National Social Contract", in a speech which for first time affirmed significance of Enlightenment and Revolution.

In eighteenth century there was no doubt that proclamation of rights of man and citizen was highest expression of Enlightenment that swept all over France, so it was an echo of thinking of Physiocrats.

Overall, manifesto expresses "the cult of reason" and also uses thirteenth-century examples to prove historical call for freedom.

Close connection between European ideological emancipation and colonial culture

The Spanish Confederation's argument is similar, on one hand explicitly referring to French Declaration of 1789, and on other hand citing many legal documents in Spanish history as forerunners of Spanish Confederation.

In general, we see how League of Human Rights is positioning itself on a longer historical path, replete with constitutions and milestones dating back to antiquity.

The most important starting point for evolution of European thought, however, was Enlightenment. The history of Europe has made European countries feel that they must fulfill a historic task and unite whole of Europe.

The principles of League of Rights are linked to French Declaration of Rights of Man of 1789, but Scottish Freemason James Anderson's 1723 Statute represents most important historical and idealistic landmark for many Masonic lodges, and French Freemasonry has still adopted revolutionary motto "Liberty , Equality, Fraternity" as an ideal with a background in which Freemasons and human rights activists in France and some other European countries are very similar, characterized by ideals of humanism and fraternity .

French Freemasons chose "Colonies under Democracy" as one of several themes of their 1927 conference, and main focus of their article was whether democracy and colonialism could be merged. but all articles begin with some historical considerations.

French Freemasonry has viewed colonialism as a human phenomenon throughout history. In principle, a distinction has been made between ancient, early modern, and modern colonialism since mid-nineteenth century. The current form is almost exclusively European colonialism plus American neo-colonialism.

Thanks to progress of European science and technology, demand for raw materials can only be satisfied through colonies, distinction between self-proclaimed civilized Europeans and primitive peoples is not solid, which is basis of civilized obligations, although there is no violence, these explanations basically follow development narratives of era Enlightenment: European superiority in civilization, responsibility of civilization, and legality of seizure and development of overseas lands.

Even French Freemasonry prepared two articles, one of which is named as a collective author, and second is signed by Gaston Weil.

As they say, first of two articles provides a psychological explanation for colonialism, first sentence of which is reminiscent of Victor Bash concept above:“In human nature there is an instinctive sense of need for change, a thirst for adventure that irresistibly draws him to unknown lands, to unknown shores."

In same way, Anfa Lumiere believes that: “From childhood of mankind, national groups of nations begin to form.”

Subsequently, Anfa Lumiere proposed a historicalHe believed that first batch of colonial settlers would always send soldiers to carry out violent conquest in order to protect themselves, which formed military regime that was basis of subsequent administrative regimes. . Both forced native population to become civilized, however, it forced former colony to gain independence at end of process.

The second essay is by Masonic brother Gaston Weir who draws on historical models rather than critical political historiography, modern history of colonialism begins in Spain, of King Philip II Weir says: master of world."

Close connection between European ideological emancipation and colonial culture

Will's remarks are very offensive, far from more or less romantic views of other thinkers, and Will also points to close cooperation between king and Christianity and complete failure of Philip's policy, as a reference he wrote an article published in journal Diplomatic and Colonial Affairs in 1901.

The next European country to conquer was India, because France ceded their possessions to Great Britain, so they chose India, and same story later happened in North America.

Finally, during French Revolution, Roberts Weir stated that "according to principles of revolution, all colonies may be sacrificed without causing failure of revolution." now United States, as Will said, is probably largest colonial power in world.

Will outlines role of Christianity in colonialism from a point of view that seems less offensive but more thought provoking. The colonial powers established an "administrative dictatorship", although material rather than moral reasons led to colonial exploration, and by way, Will even doubts that meaning of colony for colonialists even existed.

Lodge Hanoi, Vietnam has released a 22-page essay detailing history of French colonialism in Caribbean signed by lodge reporter Louis Sylvester. discoveries and extensions, bringing together many facts, but also referring to so-called laws of history: "The ancient law of history, that when two peoples come into contact, most civilized, even when conquered, impose their civilization on other, and as for civilization, they have nothing against their masters."

Lodge argues quite differently and very critically that for this small country, colonialism is an integral part of capitalist system, not in order to bring civilization to other peoples, but in order to show that there is no romantic side to colonial history: “War is basis of colonial history, and peaceful penetration is empty talk."

As can be seen, in French Freemasonry, interpretation of history of civilization, exemplified by colonialism, is highly controversial, with discussions ranging from assumption of an anthropological constant to interpretation of colonial history as a history of violence.

What historical knowledge and historical consciousness influence society? These questions are difficult to answer even today when people can be interviewed or conduct representative surveys, and we are especially interested in historical knowledge and historical awareness of students because we want to know how well textbooks and history lessons work in schools, so in recent years a new branch of science arose, called public history.

Close connection between European ideological emancipation and colonial culture

We want to ask same questions about early historical knowledge and consciousness, but it's hard to answer them now.

In this article, I describe one of possible ways to get answers:CSOs have a broad membership base, control their own internal communication processes, and, most importantly, create their own documents, contributing to historical knowledge, and historical awareness provides a broader understanding, applied knowledge and sense of history that are relevant to commitment to national goals.

The above celebrities may have received more formal education than other ordinary people, so they may only represent part of group and may not generalize to all countries and people in world.

In interwar period, there was no differentiation in study of European history as there is today, and this has advantage that researchers work with very general views and a canon of historical knowledge, which facilitates this. part of wheel of history, and that Enlightenment, with its legal philosophy and humanism, was catalyst, does not notice that Enlightenment also had completely different aspects.

There is an obvious paradox between emancipation of mind and development of capitalism. Even today "colonization" still exists, or has been replaced by a more hidden veil, more obvious.

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