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Fiume: Hungarian patriotism is gaining popularity in country

Fiume, city of Italian-speaking Croats

In 1867 Hungarian journalist Adolf Sternberg first visited Fiume before 1848 and was surprised to find that in 20 Hungarian patriotism made a name for himself in country in 2010 when he first visited port city.

Despite fact that language, customs and life of Fiume were alien to him, he was still very happy, and Sternberg noticed that there was a difference between >Fiume itself and its northeastern outskirts, which he associates with fact that this is Croatian part of Fiume, such differences arise not only in different languages, but also due to different architecture of houses and layout of city, indicating a significant presence of Slavs in it.

He recognizes predominance of Slavs on coast, but does not name Kvarner Bay, bay separating Istria from Dalmatia, whose northernmost >Fiume is located in "Hungarian Sea », which implies not ethnicity, but loyalty to multinational Kingdom of Hungary.

Fiume: Hungarian patriotism is gaining popularity in country

Remembering that military band played Hungarian Rakocza March in Fiume, he ended his composition by realizing his dream that "all districts of kingdom from Otto Carpathians to Adriatic Sea”, he sang Hungarian anthem regardless of their language.

The author believes that this is a heritage of culture

This hope seems contradictory, since it does not correspond to Magyarization of Hungarian part of Habsburg dynasty, supported by central authorities in Budapest, thereby imposing Hungarian language on other peoples. relations in monarchical Hungary, which were "reduced to a campaign of linguistic Hungarianization by Hungarian state and its local officials".

Fiume: Hungarian patriotism is gaining popularity in country
Fiume: Hungarian patriotism is gaining popularity in country

Support for Hungary in Fiume, implying autonomy of city as a subject of secession and special status of a free port, although loyalty to Hungarian defender was challenged by Croats sardonic mockery, but local Hungarian feelings are embodied in oneself realities of fidelity, naturally of interest, in addition to nationality.

Anonymous Fiuman, who supported annexation of Croatia, said that he was shocked by active support of Hungary from his compatriots.

He did this in Letters on Fiume, published by Il Cittadino Il Cittadino in Paris, in a letter in favor of annexation of Trieste by Italy and an attempt to preserve "principle of nationality of Fiume", thus expressing support for latter's accession to Croatia, an anonymous author of Fiume suggested passing Croatian argument to Fiume Incorporate, since most important issue is "the territorial integrity of Kingdom of [Croatia] ».

Fiume: Hungarian patriotism is gaining popularity in country

While he believes an alliance with Croatia is a better means of securing Fiuman autonomy than Hungarian rule, he also suggests that Fiuman Mann Russian autonomy must give way to idea of ​​a union with Croatia on grounds that “provincial autonomy, even if complete and real, must give way to principle of nationality”, He said that Fiume >, was once land of Liberni, land of Slavs, and finally land of Croatia.

In Fiume live Italian families, about a thousand of entire population of city, settled here from other places, in Fiume speak Italian This for Rhodian Fyumen does not allow them to use their native language.

As evidence, researchers pointed out that throughout city, insults against Croatian state were expressed even in Croatian language, since Fiumens do not know any other language.

The song says that Fiume is Hungarian and that Croats must leave city, but it is sung in Croatian when "I am my friend", i.e. "Fiume is Hungary< /strong>".

Fiume: Hungarian patriotism is gaining popularity in country

[Croatian] River means a standardization of name Rijeka, previous Slavonic version of Fiume, Santiago Mann. > are of Slavic origin, and researchers claim that "union with Croatia will be homecoming".

Thus, attraction of Italian culture comes down to commercial links with Italian Peninsula region, since Fiume is purely a trade city > as researchers put it , “due to his circumstances, he conducted most of his trade with neighboring Italy, and, tempted by benefits of latter, Fiume went through several Italian clans, learned about customs of Italians.

Loyalty to one's own country, says Anonymous Feuman, formed basis of political development among Feuman.

He mocked some Fiumans who wore Hungarian national costumes in public gatherings, but other than word pay, others Hungarian /strong> , thus implying that Feyman's attachment to Budapest is based solely on economic considerations.

Fiume: Hungarian patriotism is gaining popularity in country

He could not understand how these Themenians could be so enthusiastic about Hungary, because they had never seen land of Hungary, they had no relations with anyone, and their language was as foreign as Chinese.

He wondered why there was any reason to oppose annexation with Croatia in favor of annexation with Hungary, questioning what he called illusory municipal autonomy" Fiume >.

The events of 1848 demonstrated wariness of local residents in relation to Croatian nation, capture of city by Croats, withdrawal of Hungarian government and >Government of CroatiaOrder < strong>Jeračić aims to incorporate port city into Kingdom of Croatia.

November 10, 1848, when Fiume was celebrating suppression of Vienna revolution, numerous flags with Slavic tricolor could be seen everywhere. a strong> flag was flown in city, displaying national colors of Yugoslavs, by order of red, white and blue flags on municipal flag.

The author believes that this is most true reflection in hearts of people

The display of Slavic colors was seen as a symbol of support for cause of Habsburg absolutism, and Yugoslavs were also drawn to support against Hungarians. In addition, 2 months ago, on 14 September, first Croatian National Assembly was ordered to be held in Fiume, with stated goal of preserving the city's Croatian identity.

Fiume: Hungarian patriotism is gaining popularity in country

Even one Slavic newspaper, published in Italian and promoting unification of Dalmatia and Croatia, speaks of Fiume's unwillingness to follow Croatian cause.

All coasts of eastern Adriatic are Slavic, according to authors of Lavignil. From Isonzo River to Albania, with exception of a few real Italian families, rest are Slavs.

In Kvarner Bay, in 1848 between Croatia and Hungary ended conflict between Bakar and Fiume because of competition for status of main port of region.

Bacal City, about 10 miles southeast of Fiume, has not received same privileges as Fiume, not even Bacal >described as "Croatian hearth".

The inhabitants of Bakar were actually active until Croatia occupied Fiume in 1848. The people of Fiume were pressured to join Croatian cause of Bakara National Guard, which formed vanguard of Croatian army that occupied Fiume,< strong>Giaci recalled that he was a doctor Fiuman who was actively involved in local politics and opposed Croatian invasion of city.

Fiume: Hungarian patriotism is gaining popularity in country

Fiuman Observer described them as an army of peasants from nearby villages, which he described as "many peasants wearing red hats" or "armed in all sorts of strange ways" National Bakar Guard.

About ten years after events of 1848, a reporter writing a monthly column on local issues called "The Tramp" visited Bakar with other compatriots, where he discovered a portrait of an innkeeper carrying a rifle and pistol with inscription "Commander of National Guard Bacala, who occupied Fiume, August 30, 1848".

The public display of painting was considered by Fauman offensive and an obstacle to "striving for harmony", people Bakal prone to provoked by Croatian< /strong> nationalism, indicating constructive nature of nationalism stemming from vested interests rooted in local rivalries.

Croatian authorities say they separated Fiume from Hungary in 1848 after a period of relative calm in 1850. Measures to suppress autonomy municipality by introducing Croatian in schools and administration.

In 1848, an unpopular person in city was appointed municipal councilor, which led to resignation of Hungarian authorities, annexation of Fiume to Croatia, early February 1861. People took to streets , demanding appointment of another, more suitable one.

Fiume: Hungarian patriotism is gaining popularity in country

The new editor of Vieumanns Zeitung Ludwig von Sudenhorst has written about split between rival parties in city, already expressing his support for annexation of Vieumann by Croatia. strong>, in his opinion, there is a second party, besides autonomists loyal to Hungary, someone is trying to penetrate Fiume< after 1848 /strong> Form it from inhabitants of administrative territory who do not have right to be called a party Fiumana, because in this case only Croats come from outside, and not a citizen of Fiumana.

This is conviction of a newly born newspaper, previously last political newspaper closed by Croatian authorities in 1861, defined by its editors as " absolute municipality, self-government and support for civil society. aspirations."

In 1848, Andrew Archibald Patton became British Consul in Dubrovnik, in 1862, during his travels in eastern Adriatic Sea>, he once stopped briefly in Fiume .

Fiume: Hungarian patriotism is gaining popularity in country

He notes that inhabitants of city are indifferent to language aspect, and main problems between Bakars and Slavic peoples are no more than Fiume strong> intuitively, because if local residents of city are ethnically sympathetic Slavs, then their material interests largely depend on Bakarians.

His description of population of Fiume, smaller than that of Trieste and less affected by immigration, was given by Giacci in Italy ten years later, in 1857-1860. The responses were received in journals published in English. .

Giachi wrote: Fuman is indeed of Slavic origin, and their language is Italian.

Jachi describes the city as having "special conditions", which requires "official decrees, relations between neighboring peoples, trade, various enterprises and navies" to be coordinated.

Fiume: Hungarian patriotism is gaining popularity in country

Main task. This includes development of at least three languages: Cyrillic, Italian and German.

In Fiume and nearby towns, in addition to immigrants, these seem to have been people of Slavic origin, Giacci argues, although Italian was also widely spoken.

The author believes that each country has a language and culture, and a single language contributes to development of culture

This phenomenon is common in courts, theaters, most written texts and letters, while Slavonic seems to be neglected.

However, author complains that Fiume schools do not have good teachers who could teach Italian.

Teachers in multinational empire had to be bilingual, so there were no native Italians who knew German and Slavic, "but many Germans and Slavs knew some Italian."

Fiume: Hungarian patriotism is gaining popularity in country

By 1867, local gymnasium had been Croatian for 6 years, during which time Italian was not taught publicly.

So we see that autonomists emphasize use of Italian not as a symbol of their Italian citizenship and not as a result of their desire to join Kingdom of Italy, but as a symbol of Fiume in Distinguishing Features uniqueness among other cities in Croatia.

Indeed, local newspaper pointed out problem that ignoring teaching of Italian means that students do not have sufficient language skills to communicate in Fiume at work or in social activities.

After all, newspaper believes that Fauman will hire foreign staff from Dalmatia or Italy to provide language training to meet local needs, which also implies that Italian language is not threatened in Dalmatia.

Fiuman's systematic use of Italian to define local identity was part of an attempt by business and intellectual elite to separate city from Croatian hinterland, thus offering cultural reasons for its economic uniqueness in terms of language.


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