After World War II, Hungary fundamentally changed institutional landscape with reforms in 1949, massive resignations and new appointments, giving priority to applied fields and excluding certain disciplines such as sociology and psychology.
Many structures and most journals survive, but historical reviews are marginalized and share of publications is much lower than in first half of century.
Until 1940s, honorary lectures for former members and publication of their biographies in HAS journal were common.Rakosi regime
During Rákosi regime, Hungarians discussed more "practical" matters, sometimes honoring actors outside of Hungary.
After a period of inactivity, history of science was revived in a form consistent with socialist program: in 1962, a journal on history of technology was launched, and in 1966, an association of medical historians.
Authors' note. Several new forums bring together people interested in the history of science.
The Council of Presidents of Association of Technical and Scientific Unions was established in 1970 to study "History of Science and Technology", which contributed to popularization of this field.
In 1972, a research group was formed at Budapest Technical University (BME) to study history of science in Hungary, and in 1973, a committee was formed at HAS to represent field in an interdisciplinary manner.
László Matre was a key figure in creation of discipline in 1970s, being a lecturer in philosophy at Eötvös Academy and director of Eötvös University Library in Budapest from 1945 to 1980.
The oldest body in this discipline is VAN Interdepartmental Commission on History of Science and Technology (ICHST), which was established in December 1973 and since 1974 has been part of VAN Scientific Department II - Philosophical and Historical Sciences.
Laszlo Martre chaired section from 1970 to 1980, and from very beginning ICHST was interdisciplinary, covering different academic fields.
Most other divisions of Academy appoint representatives to committees, and as Academy has undergone restructuring at various times, role of committee as "gatekeeper" has changed: at some periods it has right to evaluate applications for "academic doctoral studies " and not at other times.
For generations, inflow and outflow of members has been moderate and has been a meeting place for different approaches, more humane and more scientifically oriented, and more recently committee has absorbed foreign members.
The most important early center of discipline was chairmanship committee of Society for Technical and Scientific Unions (STU), established in 1970 to study "History of Science and Technology".
The Confederation of Organizations grew considerably during socialist period, with more than 70,000 members and a network of industries and natural sciences.Association of Scientific Unions
Society of Scientific Unions For decades, since 1984, President's Council has regularly organized meetings as a venue for lectures and discussions, including largest annual conference on history of science.
The conference proposal was first proposed at conference by Josef Antall, first elected prime minister since first free elections in post-socialist era in 1990.
The Annual Meeting is supported by various organizations, including National Patent Office, aforementioned ICHST, National Museum of Technology, Semmelweis Library and Archives, and Society for History of Medicine.
These conferences, averaging 30 to 60 lectures, are large gatherings of professional and lay historians of science, often with eminent scientists as speakers. headed by Hungary's first female professor of physics.
Her book on history of physics in Hungary contains a detailed analysis of various trajectories of methods influenced by Descartes, Newton and Boskovic in 18th century Catholic and Protestant schools.
The main task of affiliated researchers was to write history of science in Hungary, and this effort linked archival research to popularization of science and produced several catalogues, bibliographies and regular reviews of discipline.
The research group broke up after financial reform of 1995, but participants remained active, doing similar work, some continue to work under auspices of faculty, and to this day there is a research group focused on SFS at Institute. philosophy. Some members start a company while others continue to teach.
Late socialism may have been a period of steady development in history of science, and aforementioned meeting point became meeting place for most self-taught specialists recruited primarily from natural sciences, as well as many in < strong>second expert with a humanistic background before world war.
The authors claim that this informal group of scientists included Arpad Szabo, a well-known historian of this discipline who influenced views of Laszlo Kalma and Imre Lakatos on mathematics.
Prior to this, there had been little systematic work to develop science in context of Hungary in 18th and 19th centuries, a task undertaken by Barnaassi, < strong >Ferens Sabadvari and Sokfalvinai and Lazlovikdi, Laszlo Mackay and Walter Endre finished, peer stories again became commonplace in magazines, biographies became popular.
Librarian Laszlo Mora is probably most prolific biographer, especially in history of chemistry, who started numerous series of selected works of eminent scientists.
Multi-volume biographies of luminaries of Hungarian science and technology have been instrumental in canonizing key figures, and for all publication formats, relatively large circulations mean that distribution campaign reaches a wide range of audiences.
The influx of ideas during this period was relatively light due to acquisition of modern international literature by Central Library, HAS library, located next to historic main building of college, emphasizes general history and maintains a close relationship. connections with scientists.
Librarian Laszlo Vekerdy, an expert on many international issues, mentoring researchers in new books and journals, refused to defend his doctoral dissertation. Readers write accessible and well-informed essays and books.
Because reputation was less limited to written findings in socialist period, citation analysis would not have revealed much of this network of knowledge during period due to reluctance of various participants to publish ideological works. Lots of high quality translations and biographies. were produced, and historical themes attracted much attention.
In 1970s and 1980s, control mechanisms actively slowed down or directed learning process, for example, in 1973, some publications were banned, and some members of Lukacs school were banned from lecturing.
The author argues that: ban was not only because they were critical of Marx's economic theory, but also because they dealt with topics such as the sense of multiple truths, by which time new historiographical trends had penetrated mainly through English -Saxon philosophical tradition was widespread.
For example, György Bönze's 1972 paper on "Marxist Philosophy of Science" already shows influence of post-Kunian history, but dissertation was defended only in 1989. and published in 1990
Association with recent exiles in 1970s, such as George Markus or Ferenc Altrichter, who respectively focused on scientific hermeneutics and analytic philosophy, is sometimes still ambiguous, such as publishing texts under " >borrowed" colleague's name.
These developments take place in an intellectual environment where interdisciplinary connections are common: Kuhn's ideas are discussed alongside those of Wittgenstein, Frankfurt School or Noam Chomsky.
A receptive and eclectic interdisciplinary culture has once again emerged, although some of earlier trends played a lesser role and members of local philosophical tradition were acutely aware of sociological issues, Tamas Demeter has recently emphasized a strong sociological tradition in philosophy .
Analytical methods are on rise, and until 1990 there was a strong tradition of methodological reflection in science, exemplified throughout history by well-informed professors who often also contributed to history of science.
Historical methods are seen as a "fruitful position" leading to pioneering research and helping to standardize discipline, and early scientometric analysis is an important part of describing recent history of area, some of most highly valued Hungarians today Scientists played a role in birth of scientometrics.
Rich informal networks formed in 1960s and 1970s and flourished until 1980s, when official platforms and venues were linked to less and less hidden "samizdat" culture.
Foreign scientists became more popular in 1980s, and in later period there was more emphasis on natural sciences. The science education curricula produced internationally recognized results and were developed with help of eminent scholars, many of whom were interested in historical topics such as Zell G. Marks.
It was against this backdrop that second wave of institutionalization took place in 1990s.The Rise of Multiparty Democracy The
Hungarian institution emerged in 1970s, as described in previous section, with aim of uncovering scientific cultural heritage, promoting scientific education and scientific outlook, and was not affected by Kuhn revolution.
This is not case for department, which shifted its focus to HPS shortly after change in Budapest in 1989-1990, where a strong emphasis was placed on philosophy and methodology of science.
Ottwos Lorraine Researchers at HPS University Department (ELTE) deal with contemporary research topics in fields of logic, systems theory, philosophy of physics or history, philosophy and hermeneutics of science.
The BME Philosophy of Science and History Department is influenced by Hacke, Kuhn and Cambridge-style HPS and offers elective courses in history and philosophy of science and technology, another existing BME department. for several years, on history of technology and innovation management, with an introduction to STS.
Under leadership of Marthafer, BME established a PhD program between 1997 and 1998 whose research linked history and philosophy of science.
Her early history work was on variational principles in post-mauperty physics with popperist Laszlo Hassing, author of a book on inductive philosophy of science.
She was also "silenced" for many years in 1970s, but she was able to write a book on incompatibility of scientific theories in 1980s, and her more historical work includes several case studies from alternative mathematization of nature in seventeenth century popularized Algarrotti's method.
Because of her central role in "Sociology of Science", Hungarian SSK, inspired by Kuhn and Bloor, was pivotal, and she also played a key role in Michael Polanyi's Free Philosophical Society.
She was founding editor of journal Polaniana, which published articles on scientific and philosophical thought of Michael Polanyi, and in 1980s she developed new courses including History of Methodology, Informal Logic, and Argumentation.
The BME doctoral program brings together different approaches as it was developed by Maltafer in collaboration with technology philosopher Imre Chronsky and biographer. Initiated jointly with institutional historian Josef Nemeth. strong>.
For several years it was accredited as an interdisciplinary engineering program offering degrees in engineering, technology, and history of science, but after 2002 it was reclassified as a doctoral program in humanities. For several years it maintained its interdisciplinary character as a course in history and philosophy.
Symbol of discipline's shaky anchor is that faculty was awarded "Historic Center of Excellence" award by Hungarian Accreditation Council for 3 years, but it was only re-accredited as belonging to philosophy before verification period expired.
PhD candidates range from history of Hungarian industrial companies to conceptual analysis of mathematics, and faculty has produced dozens of technology historians, science historians and philosophers, analytical philosophers and communication specialists.
In 2017, most of senior teachers quit due to authoritarian actions of headmaster and headmaster, and school ceased operations. The majority of students are currently applying for a Ph.D. degree program at Lauren University.
It can be said that by year 2000, scientific and technical research had emerged in Hungary, with perspective of STS increasingly taken into account in scientific decisions, such as creation of registries and roadmaps of national research infrastructure.
The "Sociology of Knowledge" (SSK) theoretical branch is emerging in sociology courses, and some PhDs are experimenting with anthropological methods of observation.
From 1980s to early 2000s, much of pioneering work in this area took form of case studies, and some of Hungarian case studies were explicitly "constructivist", i.e. that scientific knowledge is primarily a product of human activity and interaction.
However, laboratory ethnography and other field studies have never been fully integrated. Although history of science is considered one of dynamically developing fields of study in Hungary open to interdisciplinarity, this field has not become an independent discipline after a promising start.
Author's opinion: historical research in some disciplines is well organized and productive, but interaction between networks within disciplines is very modest, there has never been a centralized mailing list for history of science, most news comes through lists of philosophers, some through cultural-historical or disciplinary networks, and examples are endless.
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