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Nobel Prize Exceptions: Awarded to three deceased, and reason is intriguing

In 1895, Alfred Nobel left a will and established a fund of 94% of all assets, or 31 million SEK, in honor of "contributions of mankind" to physics, chemistry, peace, physiology, medicine and literature. "Major Contributor" (an economic award was added in 1968). The prize was not awarded after Nobel's death in second year, but for first time award was not presented until fifth anniversary of his death. The Nobel laureate was announced in October 1901, and award ceremony took place on 10 December. , fifth anniversary of Nobel's death. which has since become a practice to this day.

The reason Nobel created this award is to honor those who have "made greatest contribution to mankind." This excerpt: “Please turn my property into a fund and use interest from this fund as a bonus every year. to reward those who have made outstanding contributions to humanity in past year."

It's easy to see that, at behest of Nobel, he still prefers to reward living people, so Nobel Prize winners rarely die. It is actually very difficult to reward dead. There are too many dead people who have left behind great deeds over centuries. In 1974, Nobel Foundation officially announced rule that, in principle, Nobel Prize cannot be awarded to people who have passed away. Therefore, "not awarded to deceased" was clarified. Because of this situation, Tang Feifan, first writer to share trachoma clothes, and writer Lao She and others did not receive Nobel Prize due to their death. What is little known, however, is that Nobel Prize has been awarded more than 590 times, to more than 900 individuals and more than 20 groups. Among these, there are three special cases where prize was awarded to three people who died, but what is intriguing is that two of three are Swedes and one is Canadian.

Nobel Prize Exceptions: Awarded to three deceased, and reason is intriguing
01: Swedish lyric poet Karl Feld

Karlfeld is a Swedish poet. He has two personalities: a writer, a Nobel laureate, and a secretary for life. The Heath and Love Song, published in 1895, made him famous in one fell swoop, while Fridolin Song, published in 1898, and Fridolin's Paradise, published three years later, made him a great Swedish poet. . He later wrote Eryou Zeshi and worked as a judge and life secretary for Nobel Prize.

When he was a judge and life secretary, he was nominated several times, but because of his duties, he refused again and again to avoid suspicion. Finally, six months after his retirement, Swedish Academy of Letters awarded him Nobel Prize in Literature in 1931. The winner was The Wasteland and Love, and assessment was "because of artistic value of his poetry, no one has ever doubted it."

Undoubtedly, Karl Feld's work must be very great, but there are many works in world that can win Nobel Prize, and many of them are not inferior to works of Karl Feld, so reason why he was able to receive Nobel Prize is same as and his Swedish background unrelated to his position as a Nobel Prize judge and life secretary.

There are some unspeakable things about Carlfield's character: In 1886, he was detained in Miami, USA for a year, which may be due to his lack of money at the time; He was sentenced to 2 years in prison for forging bills of exchange. and signatures of relatives, and he also forged signatures, but he was not found at that time.

Nobel Prize Exceptions: Awarded to three deceased, and reason is intriguing
02: UN Secretary-General Hammarskjöld

In 1953, UN Secretary-General Lee resigned, and Dag Hammarskjöld became second Secretary-General of United Nations and was re-elected in 1957. Objectively speaking, Hammarskjöld really did a lot during his tenure. The reason is that world was so unsettled at that time. As joint general secretary, he could only travel. He also visited Beijing in 1954, during which China released 15 captured American pilots.

Starting in 1960, with wave of independence in Africa, Hammarskjöld's energy gradually turned to Africa. In less than a month and a half, he visited 21 countries and regions in Africa. He later described trip as "a purely professional trip for research and information, analyzing almost every politically important idea in Africa." However, after independence of many African countries, due to large number of inland tribes and mountains, as well as great powers fanning flames behind them, political situation of many countries, such as Republic of Congo, is unstable.

After independence of Congo, regime changed frequently: Hammarskjöld traveled to Congo three times during year to resolve country's internal ethnic problems. In September 1961, Hammarskjöld was about to fly to Congo for fourth time, but his plane crashed midway and unfortunately died - first UN Secretary-General to die in line of duty to date. For his great contribution to affairs of United Nations, a month after his death, Nobel Committee of Norwegian Parliament awarded him Nobel Peace Prize.

Nobel Prize Exceptions: Awarded to three deceased, and reason is intriguing
03: Canadian scientist Steinman

Ralph Steinman is a Canadian biologist who, in 1973, proposed concept of dendritic cells, which are key regulators of immunity. For this discovery, he received, among other things, William Curley Award from Cancer Research Association and was elected a Fellow of American Medical Association and National Academy of Sciences.

In October 2011, Karolinska Institute of Sweden announced that Ralph Steinmann received Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for "The discovery of dendritic cells and their role in acquired immune system" along with Jules A. Offman and Bruce Beutler. This news caused an uproar for simple reason that Ralph Steinman died of pancreatic cancer on September 30 before announcement of Nobel Prize, which violated principle that Nobel Prize cannot be awarded to deceased", and in end Nobel Committee all upheld this decision.

It's reasonable to say that there are several Nobel Prize nominations each year. Ralph Steinman may vote for another after his death, but why does Nobel Committee consider this decision inhumane. Maybe he thinks his accomplishments are excellent, maybe I think it will be problematic to choose again.

It is worth noting that Ralph Steinman's achievements in 1973 did not receive a Nobel Prize until 2011. We can also see from this that many Nobel Prizes today are awarded for accomplishments a decade ago. Don't worry that there were no Nobel Prizes in China during these years, because China's achievements in scientific research were really mediocre a few decades ago, but in recent years, China has made many major achievements in scientific research, so China's Nobel Prizes can announce next. 20 to 30 years Breakthrough.

Nobel Prize Exceptions: Awarded to three deceased, and reason is intriguing

If there are no particularly significant achievements, Ralph Steinman may be last person who can still receive a Nobel Prize after his death. The key to award is whether there are major breakthrough research findings; now, whether you can win a Nobel Prize depends not only on major scientific achievements, but also on whether you allow yourself to live longer.

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