Zhuge Liang, a native of Langya, Xuzhou, is now in Linyi, Shandong.
When he was prime minister's official during Three Kingdoms period, he invented Zhuge Liangdeng, Zhuge Liang Liangnu, and even wooden oxen and horses that could be used to transport food for 100,000 Shu Han soldiers.
After death of Liu Bei, founding emperor of Shu Han Dynasty, Zhuge Liang became prime minister and assisted his son, Liu Chan, who was in charge of important military and political affairs, as well as state affairs of prime minister. This shows how much Liu Chan trusted Zhuge Liang and his strength was high.
At end of Eastern Han Dynasty, warlords fought hand-to-hand. The Bashu region, located on southwestern border, was far from Central Plains, so it was lucky to avoid gunpowder war and became a rarity. and prosperous place during Three Kingdoms period.
“Three Kingdoms. Dong He's Biography" describes in detail life of people in Bashu at that time - wearing luxurious clothes, enjoying delicious food, and marrying luxuriously.
Bashu is today's Sichuan and Chongqing and their surroundings, not only rich in beauty, but also famous for their delicious food. Why did an area so rich in chronicles become a poor place from where people rushed to flee? This starts from 190 AD.Three Kingdoms
The centralization system of Han Dynasty collapsed in 190 AD and world fell into chaos. Warlords from all over country mobilized their troops, and everyone wanted to become king for themselves.
So, in 208 AD, Cao came with a million troops, Liu and Sun joined forces, Zhuge Liang sent an envoy to Jiangdong, and three armies united at Red Rock of Yangtze River.
They loaded ten small warships with firewood, smeared them with flammable ointment, and approached Cao Bing in name of surrender. The proud and conceited Cao Cao had no doubts.
When, two miles from Cao Ying, ten warships were set on fire together, taking advantage of wind to approach Cao's army. In this battle, Cao's army was unsuitable for water, secondly, water and soil were unsuitable, and thirdly, fire was huge and spread widely, causing great casualties.
As a result, Cao Cao was defeated and power of Three Kingdoms was formed.
In 220 AD, Cao Pi proclaimed himself emperor and Cao Wei dynasty was founded. In second year, Liu Bei proclaimed himself emperor and Shu Han Dynasty was founded. Two years later, Liu Bei, who had held post for less than two years, collapsed and died.
Nine years later, Sun Quan proclaimed himself emperor and Eastern Wu Dynasty was founded.
To fulfill his last wish and help Han Dynasty, Zhuge Liang embarked on a long and difficult journey of five expeditions to Central Plains.Zhuge Liang's Five Northern Expeditions
In spring of 228, Cao Pi collapsed and Cao Rui inherited throne. Zhuge Liang felt that time had come, so he took advantage of situation and marched on Wei. This was first Northern expedition.
Cao Wei was unprepared, causing Nan'an and other three counties to fall, and Zhuge Liang winning first battle.
But Cao Zhen reacted quickly and sent famous general Cao Zhen to fight against Zhuge Liang, who was forced to sing all way. After several battles, Zhuge Liang and his subordinate Ma Di abandoned army and fled, and finally Cao Zhen regained lost cities alone after another.
The first Northern expedition ended in failure.
In winter of that year, Zhuge Liang launched a second Northern Expedition, overcoming mountains and ridges to lay siege to Chencang.
The defender of Chencang is Hao Zhao, who has survived many battles and is very good at defensive skills. In order to fight against Zhuge Liang, Cao Zhen specially transferred Hao Zhao, who was fighting on front line, to Chencang. advance to guard Guanzhong gate.
Therefore, situation with Zhuge Liang's Northern Expedition is not optimistic. Although he led tens of thousands of soldiers, more than ten times that of Chen Cang City, but due to Hao Zhaoyun's planning, countless numbers of Shu Han's soldiers were killed and injured, and military expenses were enormous.
At that time, Zhuge Liang's soldiers did not directly attack city, but sent his subordinates to persuade them to surrender, but persuasion was unsuccessful, so he brandished his sword and fought bravely.
General Shu rushed to attack city while erecting a high ladder, and Hao Zhao in city had already planned a countermeasure. , plus rolling wood and stones.
Although Shu generals had large chariots and tens of thousands of strong warriors, they were outnumbered under circumstances, and a sea of flames blazed beneath city.
Zhuge Liang also sent Jinglan, an artifact to climb and attack city, and it worked.
The Shu generals nearly managed to climb tower several times, but Hao Zhao was able to immediately send soldiers to increase height on original grounds to stop him.
Zhuge Liang switched back to digging tunnels, so Hao Zhao dug a horizontal trench to block tunnels in city.
Seeing that damage was increasing and only Chencang could not be attacked, Zhuge Liang was forced to temporarily withdraw his troops and garrison to recharge his batteries and wait for an opportunity.
The Shu generals were camped outside city for more than half a month, food and grass were consumed every day, and wounded soldiers were still not cured. Another news came from Tanma - Hao Zhao's reinforcements had arrived.
As a result, Zhuge Liang was forced to withdraw his camp and withdraw his troops, and Battle of Chencang again ended in failure.
But next day, retreating Zhuge Liang was pursued by enemy in Qinling Valley, however, enemy was destroyed by Shu generals, who ambushed around valley before they saw Zhuge Liang's face.
After returning to Shu Han, he only rested for a few months. On 229th of following year, Zhuge Liang began third Northern Expedition;
Compared to last time, this time Zhuge Liang won first.
He sent his men to attack Wudu and Yinping, but before they could attack, enemy army learned that Shu Han's main force was under pressure and immediately retreated. Zhuge Liang occupied two counties without a single soldier. .
Two years later, in 231, it was his fourth Northern Expedition, again to Qishan, using a wooden ox he had invented to transport grain.
Cao Zhen, mentioned above, was seriously ill before battle, so Emperor Cao Rui sent Sima Yi to lead crowd to fight enemy.
Zhuge Liang led main force to attack Shanbei and destroyed wheat fields.
Wars have been going on for several years, and food is extremely scarce and valuable. In order to protect wheat fields, Sima Yi hurriedly moved to Shangyu. Upon arrival, soldiers were already exhausted due to day and night.
The helpless Zhuge Liang had no choice but to return to Lucheng for a while. The wheat fields were not completely destroyed, leaving Sima Yi, who was severely lacking in food, able to breathe.
After resting, Sima Yi gathered food and herbs from various places and pursued Lucheng, but he just set up camp and faced off, rather than fight Zhuge Liang. People all over world were ridiculed.
The two armies found themselves in a stalemate. After some time, Zhuge Liang withdrew Qi Shan's troops and concentrated them all in Lucheng.
However, resourceful Zhuge Liang fought in three ways, defeated Sima Wei army and won countless trophies.
However, battle was not over. The Shu army could not supply food and grass, and then Emperor Liu of Chan ordered troops to withdraw. Zhuge Liang's big step to revive Han Dynasty could only be interrupted. in half.
During last Northern Expedition in 234, Zhuge Liang sent his army to Weishui. Since supply of grain and grass was difficult for several northern expeditions, this time Zhuge Liang directly produced and stored grain in Weibing.
This time, battle of Weishui was still battle of Sima Yi. The two armies confronted each other for over a hundred days and finally ended with Zhuge Liang falling into depression and dying of illness.
The Shu army was kept secret, and entire army retreated.
Zhuge Liang had many hardships in his life: he followed last wish of late emperor, helped Liu Chan, attacked Cao Wei, and revived Han dynasty.
In seven years, most of soldiers, food, and military resources needed for these five wars came from Bashu, who was very wealthy at time.
Manpower and material resources were exhausted, and Bashu gradually turned into a "tired place" without prosperity of past cities.